De-Conflicted and efficient 4D Trajectories through a Centralised Service

Recently I have had a very interesting discussion about the future of air traffic management with a person who has for a long time studied future concepts to improve efficiency in Air Traffic Control.

4D trajectory: Image embedded from

I was in Bucharest on a 2 day trip to give presentations about ATM and ATC from an operational perspective to Aeronautical Engineering students at the Polytechnic University of Bucharest. The vice dean, who has read a PHD in 4D Trajectories Optimisation started a discussion on what the vision may be regarding 4D trajectories and on the computing of the most efficient trajectories for flights in terms of energy consumption and time.

He said that whereas he agreed with the common concept that the key towards further efficiencies in the above mentioned areas is to be able to push the traffic situation into proactive management of already de-conflicted situations (eventual gate-to-gate precision trajectory clearances) rather than legacy reactive / tactical ATC based achievement of separation, there were two elements that needed to be enforced. These were:

  • The idea that the trajectory of flights which are at once both de-conflicted from other flights and also the most efficient, should be entrusted to a centralised ground system, and
  • Secondly, that the main criteria for the most efficient trajectory was one based on time and fuel consumption and not on distance covered (that the most efficient route might not be the shortest one).

1. Ground based centralised de-conflicted and efficient precise trajectory clearance:

The idea makes sense, the system should be based on a centralised processor that analyses all flight requests and parameters stemming from all ANSPs and proposes the best trajectory to flights. The term best would be defined as a trajectory which would be de-conflicted from all other flights and most efficient. ATC would be then responsible for monitoring the flight and to act on last minute changes due to unforeseen circumstances. The efficient trajectory would be based on meteorological reports and forecasts, thus making the best use of prevailing winds, etc.

In this model, the Reference Business Trajectory for a flight would be prepared by a centralised regional service based on information from various stakeholders including ANSPs and weather services. The RBT would then be accepted by the airspace user who would fly it knowing it has a high degree of stability (it would not be likely to suffer major revisions whilst in flight), and being the most efficient.

This idea to me makes sense as it marks an evolution of the direction the management of the ATM network has been taking, from Flow Control, to Network Management to perhaps Enhanced Network Management. History has shown that a centralised responsible body, pushed and governed by its stakeholders (such as the case of CFMU and NM) are the most efficient responses to unleashing and enforcing the necessary situations to improve flight efficiency.

2. It is about time and fuel consumption and not distance

 Aircraft with sails. Image courtesy of

The second aspect that I found quite innovatory in this discussion I had is that efficiency should be seen in terms of flying time and in terms of energy consumption and that this does not always correlate with distance covered.

The way things are presented today is that the closest we get to the great circle in terms of distance covered between two airports, the more efficient our flight is. But this may not be true if to fly the great circle one ignores wind, for example. (If a head wind component is more important for a given flight, should it fly a great circle trajectory than it would be if the flight steers away from this great circle trajectory into more favourable wind and therefore saves more fuel and/or arrives earlier to destination by doing so – a bit like the case of a boat that has to choose between navigating against the current for a direct route or to let the current steer it in terms of maritime navigation. We need to become more sophisticated when talking about flight trajectory efficiency and how we calculate it. Is it the distance covered? (as we see it shouldn’t be), is it the flying time? Or the energy used to fly? (possibly it should be a calculation based on the component of the last 2).

The above for me is very simple to understand, yet it seems to me as a break through as we always tend to talk about trajectory inefficiencies based on the deviation from the shortest (distance) route and then by computing the fuel and/or time lost as a direct conversion of the distance, whereas what we need to be talking about is on how to make trajectories to be agreed based on the knowledge of winds and of engine performances.

The above seems to me more feasible to be achieved using a centralised service rather than a scattered one. In terms of applicability in the near future I see also that in terms of phases of flight, it may still be difficult to manage these type of trajectories in terminal airspaces and in and around airports, because the incognita in these areas seem to me still too complex to compute and manage (from passengers arriving late to the gate to GA traffic making unpredicted manoeuvres in the air and airside vehicles on the ground.)  However, I could imagine a centralised service presenting on behalf of ANSPSa trajectory contract of this type to the flight in question, based on the current situation and de-conflicted from other traffic from the moment the flight leaves the terminal area of departure to the point it arrives to the terminal are of arrival as something that if worked upon could be made feasible in a foreseeable future (This close to Sesar’s Operational Improvement Step:” Use of Free Routing from Terminal Area Operations-exit to Terminal Area Operations-entry” but rather than ‘free routing’ we should be aiming for a de-conflicted and optimum-efficient precision trajectory clearance from Terminal Area Operations-exit to Terminal Area Operations-entry)

I think this, based on a centralised service and on a real time system wide information management exchange and on the concepts of de-conflicted precision trajectory clearances  which are optimum efficient in terms of a computation of time and fuel consumption, should at least make the base for a serious study into feasibility and into a shared operational concept...

Such was my discussion in Bucharest. I went to teach and as often happens, I came back feeling I have learnt something very significant about the future of air traffic management!

ATC open day

A few weeks ago I attended an ATC open day.

It was a very interesting day which had the main objective of introducing Air Traffic Control to the public. The day was divided into different parts ranging from presentations about air traffic control, to demonstrations about controllong aircraft in a simulator to finally a hands on for those who wanted to try ATC. The presentations and the demonstration were given by air traffic controllers but the event was organised by a non profit organisation made up of non professionals who are enthusiastic and passionate about air traffic control. This event led me essentially to two thoughts; the first being, how beneficial it is to organise similar open days or awareness days for the public of a profession which otherwise stays in the shadows most of the time (and one normally hears about it negatively: either because of an incident, a delay (the pilot saying it is due to air traffic control) or because of a strike. The second thought was: had it to be a group of non professionals to have this great idea and organise this day? Where are the professionals? Should we not do more of this in every corner of the world? Perhaps finally there will be more who will understand what the work is about, a few more who wish to become air traffic controllers, a few more who move away from the cliche of "oh it must be a stressful job" and closer to understanding a bit more what this stress is about, what safety is about, what controllers worry about... I think it would very much benefit the profession, who needs to keep in contact with the public. So if you are part of a professional guild of Air Traffic Controllers, I encourage you to organise a similar yearly event in your community to preach about your profession. Also coincidentally last week the IFATCA general conference took place. (I hope it was a great success!) I suggest to IFATCA to consider to run an ATC open day to the public in parallel with the general conference and with the regional conferences. When the conference goes to a place, apart from lobbying the local authorities, we could reach the public there and educate them about our profession. Finally, if you are in Spain and are enthousiastic about air traffic control I suggest you join the non profit organisation who organised this. They are called OECAV ( (not linked to IVAO) They are very proactive and doing a good job in our name. Supporting them is the least we can do!

Aircraft Altimeter Failure

"An altimeter failure on a PC12 aircraft caused a 2000 ft discrepancy between the displayed altitudes on the aircraft’s two altimeters. This contributed to a very serious airprox which identified a number of safety issues of interest to the aviation community...." This is a very interesting read from read the full article click here  

Buy Zithromax Without Prescription

Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, This is the second part of my review of the EU regulation on ATCO licensing. In this part I will focus on areas of improvement that still need to be made to this regulation.
To read the first part of this post, my Zithromax experience, click here.

In terms of areas for improvement, Buy generic Zithromax, there are a few about which I would like to comment:

As a premise, I would like to start with reproducing the first part of article 2 of the regulation which says that the regulation lays down detailed rules for the issuing, suspension and revocation of air traffic control and student air traffic control licences and of associated ratings, buy Zithromax from mexico, endorsements, Zithromax for sale, medical certificates and of certification of training organisations and the conditions of their validity, renewal, re-validation and use, Zithromax from canadian pharmacy.

1 On the use of instructors in transitional training as part of unit training:

If we take 2 definitions from article 3 of the regulation:

Definition 12b states that unit training " including transitional training prior to on- the-job training and on-the-job training, Herbal Zithromax, leading to the grant of an air traffic controller licence"

then, definition 9:

‘instructor endorsement’ means the authorisation entered on and forming part of a licence, indicating the competence of the holder to give on-the-job training instruction;

We can easily interpret that one does not necessarily be an OJT instructor to instruct in during transitional training, Zithromax blogs, because unit training is divided into 2 parts and the instructor endorsement is only valid for the second part. Zithromax photos, However this interpretation is somewhat blurred if one refers to definition 15 of the same article 3 which say that:

‘Unit Training Plan’ means an approved plan detailing the processes and timing required to allow the unit procedures to be applied to the local area under the supervision of an on-the-job-training instructor.

Combining the three above I think that the regulation is either saying that:

The unit training plan is a plan only for the OJT part of unit training - as it needs to be done under the supervision of the OJTI and according to definition 9 only OJT needs to be done under the supervision of an OJTI


That all unit training needs to be done under the supervision of an OJTI, meaning that definition 9 is incomplete as the endorsement should also be valid for transitional training as defined in definition 12b, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.

This unfortunately raises a big space for interpretation between different regulators across Europe, making things unequal depending on which state you are in, discount Zithromax. My opinion on the subject is that you do not need to be an active OJTI to give transitional training, Zithromax alternatives, i.e. you do not need at that given point in time to hold a valid unit endorsement on the unit you are instructing. However, australia, uk, us, usa, a minimum level of qualification on the unit endorsement that will be instructed is necessary; for example 'having held a valid unit endorsement in the 3 years preceding the provision of training' or 'has showed through previous training, Zithromax street price, up to date knowledge of the unit which will be instructed... Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, 2. Who can issue new rating endorsements

A second unclear area still remaining is the process to be followed to issue new rating endorsements and which certified training provider (initial or unit or both) who would be responsible for the training towards this.  Article 8 states that holders of a student ATC licence shall be authorised to provide ATC services in accordance with the rating and rating endorsements contained in the licence. This implies that an initial ATC training provider has to give training towards at least one rating endorsement, Zithromax mg. But what about the case of a student ATCO or a qualified ATCO who wishes to obtain another rating endorsement; which entity would be capacitated to train him. Purchase Zithromax online no prescription, 3. Could one end up with 2 licences simultaneously: an ATCO and a student ATCO at a given point in time, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.

To follow on the above, the regulation does not cater, what is Zithromax, in my opinion, Is Zithromax safe, for conversion training, that is training for a qualified controller to qualify in another rating, for example a tower controller converting in approach or area control, order Zithromax online c.o.d. The regulation does not cater of how a new rating is issued and the only path described in this regulation to get another rating is to follow initial training (it is neither clear that part of the initial training could be validated as being covered in the original initial training the ATCO received). Zithromax samples, If we follow this line of thought, then there is no procedure described of how the new rating will be inscribed on a licence. Since no procedure for conversion training exists in the regulation and since the only way described to issue a new rating is via initial training, comprar en línea Zithromax, comprar Zithromax baratos, then I deduce that a qualified ATCO who obtains a new rating needs to be issued with a new Student Licence.  Note that this is not clear, Purchase Zithromax, and I am only arriving to this through deduction and that therefore I presume that this would be open to different interpretation in different countries. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, If my scenario is correct, then a current controller will see herself issued with a student ATC licence whilst already holding a valid ATC licence. If this is the case, then, Zithromax overnight, one person could end up holding more than one ATC licence (example in the case of exchanging the newly student licence received in a second EU country, Buy no prescription Zithromax online, going through unit training and receiving an ATC licence, whilst retaining the original ATC licence with the first rating the controller had obtained before).

I do not wish to say that the above will take place easily, Zithromax description, but that the procedure is unclear and leaves a blank when it comes to the procedure of adding ratings to a controller's licence. Zithromax from mexico, 4. Language endorsement

The first paragraph of article 13 states:

Air traffic controllers and student air traffic controllers shall not exercise the privileges of their licence unless they have an English language endorsement.

Does this mean that a student ATC licence could be issued without the person having a minimum English proficiency of level 4 but that the person cannot work (exercise the privilege of) on her licence, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Or does it mean that before the licence is issued the candidate needs to have a minimum level 4 in English, Zithromax no prescription.

Article 8 paragraph 3 states

The student air traffic controller licence shall contain the language endorsement(s) and at least one rating and if applicable, Buy Zithromax from canada, one rating endorsement.

So from the two above I interpret that a student shall have at least one language endorsement which does not need to be English to be issued with a student ATC licence but that to do OJT (to exercise the privileges) the student needs the English language endorsement.

Again subject to interpretation and potential  difference in application in different Member States, Zithromax canada, mexico, india. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, 5. Instructor endorsement

Article 14 part 2b says that:

Applicants for the issue of an instructor endorsement shall:
(b) have exercised the privileges of an air traffic controller licence for an immediately preceding period of at least one year, Online buy Zithromax without a prescription, or such longer duration as is fixed by the competent authority having regard to the ratings and endorsements for which instruction is given

I have two problems understanding this:

1: What does a: "an immediately preceding period of at least one year" mean. Does it mean that the licence or rating or endorsement was valid during the 12 months preceding the issuing of the OJTI endorsement. or is there a minimum period in the year preceding (e.g, order Zithromax from mexican pharmacy. 3 months work minimum or a minimum number of hours accomplished within the year) or does it have to be a full year.

I say that this is yet another area which will be subject to interpretation and therefore differently applied in different states, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Zithromax dangers, 2: What does it mean: "or such longer duration as is fixed by the competent authority having regard to the ratings and endorsements for which instruction is given". does this mean that the longer duration depends on the rating and endorsement. And what endorsements are we talking about, Zithromax duration. Rating. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Unit. Buy Zithromax without a prescription, Both.

Does this mean that controller A working in Tower 1 with an average of 10 movements a day and who has worked for a minimum amount of hours on the unit endorsement in the TWR enough to keep it valid during the preceding 12 months, then do unit training in TWR 2, Zithromax price, which is a country's major airport and international hub, Fast shipping Zithromax, and on the same day she checks out on one sector she can on the same day start instructing others on the job. Does this regulation not recommend a minimum period of time or working hours in the unit for which training is to be provided before the instructor endorsement can be used at to give training at this particular unit.
This area is the least clear in the regulation, Zithromax schedule.

To continue with the instructor endorsement, part 3 of article 11 says that the instructor endorsement shall be valid for a renewable period of three years, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. But it does not say what the criteria for renewal should be. Buy cheap Zithromax no rx, If there are no criteria (such as refresher training for example or an assessment of performance as OJTI) then why would renewal of such an endorsement be necessary.

6. Mistake, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews.

There is a mistake which creep ed in in the regulatory text (at least the English version) of the official journal publication - Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, 11.8.2001. official journal of the EU 206/31): Part 2 of Article 27 talks of a Chapter IV. Zithromax price, coupon, Chapter IV does not exist in the regulation. I assume that the regulation should refer to Annex 2.
It is quite a serious mistake, real brand Zithromax online, I find, Zithromax recreational, that an official and binding regulation, refers to something that does not exist.

7, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Mutual recognition of licences.

ATC licences, student licences, associated ratings and language endorsements are mutually recognised. Instructor endorsement is not. Why. Is this because one would need a unit endorsement on which to exercise the privileges Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, of the OJTI endorsement. and if yes, once the condition is met, could not the other parts of article 14 (i.e. to have completed an approved instructors'  training) be mutually recognised.

In conclusion:

A new regulation which is directly applicable in all EU member states has entered into force last September 2011. This is another step towards harmonisation of the ATC licencing, training and certification process and an improvement over the previous directive where each member state had the 'freedom' of transposing the rules in a different manner.l

The new text (except of the fact of being regulation of course) does not bring a revolution in the system, even though a number of improvements have been introduced such as the mutual recognition of student licences and the need of English language endorsement. It also brings in many areas clearer structure in the articles.

It unfortunately also leaves a number of areas unclear and which will still give rise to different interpretations across the EU, such as the case of the instructor endorsement, who can instruct during the transitional sub-phase of unit training, and other items as have been mentioned in this post.

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Buy Retin-A Without Prescription

I have recently read and compared the new European Regulation number 805/2011 Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, laying down detailed rules for ATC licenses and certain certificates pursuant to the EC regulation number 216/2008 with the previous EC directive 2006/23/EC on a community air traffic controller license. Retin-A coupon, Here is what I found:

The first difference, of course, buy Retin-A online no prescription, Retin-A from canadian pharmacy, is that while the new set of rules are considered 'Regulation' which is `binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States` the former document was a directive, meaning that Member States were obliged to bring into force the laws, comprar en línea Retin-A, comprar Retin-A baratos, Online buying Retin-A, regulations and provisions to comply with the directive. The first is directly applicable as is, order Retin-A online c.o.d, Retin-A reviews, the second was applicable indirectly through transposition into local law. An EU regulation normally has a higher harmonising effect across the Union than a directive would.

This article is divided into 2 post, Retin-A dose, Retin-A maximum dosage, the first part will focus on a comparison between this regulation and the EU directive, the second, Retin-A forum, Retin-A images, which will be published in the 1st week of 2012 will focus more on the areas of improvements that I see needed to this new regulation.


First and foremost, in essence the regulation is an evolution of the principles laid down in the directive, Retin-A dosage. Purchase Retin-A online, The regulation in my opinion does not constitute a revolution. I feel that the writers of the regulation have attempted to improve the coherence and clarity of the rules described and to add information where it was missing, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription.

The first addition worth noting is the initial consideration point 7 where the regulation mandates EASA to develop certification specifications, Retin-A price, coupon, Retin-A brand name, accepted means of compliance and guidance material to facilitate the necessary regulatory uniformity.  EASA was not mentioned in the 2006 directive, mainly because it had not yet endorsed ATM regulation within its scope back then, Retin-A for sale. Kjøpe Retin-A på nett, köpa Retin-A online, Also, in relation to EASA, taking Retin-A, About Retin-A, in article 4c, it has been attributed the competence over the certification of any organisation that has its principle place of operation outside the territory of the EU, australia, uk, us, usa. Where can i order Retin-A without prescription, In this sense EASA is not anymore only a supervisor (or regulator) of regulators, but will also need to apply regulation itself, cheap Retin-A no rx. Order Retin-A from mexican pharmacy, Second novelty is that the scope of the regulation has been enlarged (article 2.2.c) to persons and organisations involved in the licensing, training, Retin-A used for, Where can i buy cheapest Retin-A online, testing, checking and medical assessment of applicants, buy Retin-A no prescription. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, This article is new in itself but its contents are part clarification of the scope of what the directive was about (but which was not clear) and part novelty, as in the case of the medical assessment. Is Retin-A safe, Third, a new scope of this regulation over the directive is that it obliges Member States to ensure that the services provided by military personnel to the public is of a safety level equivalent to that offered by civil service providers, Retin-A class. Get Retin-A, This scope widening also opens the door to approach military ATC service provision to its civil counterpart, opening the door to civil ATC licences to military personnel, generic Retin-A. Retin-A pics, Fourth, in article 6 (a) cases of misconduct have been added as being a valid reason for the suspension of a license or endorsement(s) or rating(s)

Fifth, where can i buy Retin-A online, Retin-A australia, uk, us, usa, to become an air traffic controller, one does not need anymore to hold a university entry level of education as the new regulation defines that `any other secondary education qualification which enables the candidate to complete ATC training` would be a valid entry level, Retin-A interactions. Online buy Retin-A without a prescription, This for me is a significant improvement in this area, as, Retin-A photos, Retin-A from mexico, from a given level of education, which does not necessarily need to correlate with university entry level, Retin-A gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Purchase Retin-A online no prescription, a new population could be allowed into the profession and who could make a very good career in it.

Sixth, the second part of article 10 of the directive which said that Member States, for safety reasons could limit the maximum age of working under a specific unit endorsement has been deleted, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription.

Seventh, buy Retin-A without prescription, an article that requires English language proficiency as part of your student license before starting to exercise the privelages of such a licence has been added, even if in my opinion, the way that it has been written leaves a door open to interpretations as I will comment in the next post.

Eighth, there has been further elaboration about the validity of medical certification in article 16 and the introduction of a new article (17) about reduced medical fitness.

Ninth, the tasks of competent authorities (article 22) have been increased to take into account the new language proficiency and the reduction of medical fitness provisions.

Tenth and final comparison, the new regulation establishes mutual recognition for student licences, something that was not the case before, and which in my opinion, since the harmonisation achieved in initial training through the common core content training objectives, is something which is more evident than the mutual recognition and comparisons of two ATC licences where the licence does not describe prior experience, traffic levels and unit complexities, level and type of refresher training, etc...What should be more comparable than two school leavers who have studied against a harmonised set of objectives.

In the next post I will look at areas of improvement to the regulation..

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I have just read the following news article from the CANSO News service:

¨FABEC States are Establishing Formal Structures

Functional Airspace Block Europe Central (FABEC) has initiated the formal change from project status to operational status


Zithromax For Sale, On 19 October, the first Provisional FABEC Council meeting took place. Effects of Zithromax, With this meeting, FABEC has initiated the formal change from project status to operational status, purchase Zithromax for sale. Zithromax from canada, By building up the structures almost one and half years before the formal deadline set by the European Commission, the six FABEC States Belgium, Zithromax treatment, Where to buy Zithromax, France, Germany, Zithromax no prescription, Zithromax without prescription, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland strongly underline their commitment to improve cooperation in air navigation services to enhance safety, order Zithromax no prescription, Zithromax online cod, capacity and flight efficiency in the FABEC airspace. The FABEC Council will be the main governance body of the FABEC Cooperation as laid down in the FABEC Treaty which is under national ratification.

To safeguard the progress and to develop concrete improvements, Zithromax price, Online buying Zithromax hcl, the FABEC Council will be supported by Committees and the FABEC States Bureau. In addition, Zithromax canada, mexico, india, Buy Zithromax from canada, the FABEC Council decided to establish an Air Navigations Service Provider Consultative Board whose task is to advise the FABEC Council on air navigation services aspects. All FABEC bodies are composed of civil and military representatives and will be provisional until the FABEC Treaty has been ratified by all countries.

FABEC brings together the six States of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland, their civil and military air navigation service providers as well as EUROCONTROL's four-State air traffic control centre in Maastricht, Zithromax For Sale. The civil FABEC ANSPs employ a total of 17, buy no prescription Zithromax online, Zithromax blogs, 700 people. 5, what is Zithromax, Is Zithromax addictive, 400 are traffic controllers. 55 % of all European traffic takes place in the FABEC area. ¨

When I read this, Zithromax pharmacy, Online Zithromax without a prescription, I could not help not thinking of the similarities with the Eurocontrol (and European bureaucracy) structure:

  • Governed by a Provisional Council (Eurocontrol has exactly had a Provisional Council since the 1990ies)

  • The FABEC council will be supported by does Eurocontrol

  • FABEC will establish an Air Navigation Service Provider Consultative Board....So does Eurocontrol, It has an ANS Board

  • All FABEC bodies composed of civil and military representatives...So does Eurocontrol

  • There is a FABEC treaty which still needs to be ratified by all countires (this the name of Provisional for the council) so exactly does Eurocontrol.

  • Finally the mission / commitment: ¨ their commitment to improve cooperation in air navigation services to enhance safety, cheap Zithromax, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews, capacity and flight efficiency in the FABEC airspace¨ Is this not the same for Eurocontrol?

So my questions are: Is Eurocontrol too ´big´ that the core states need an elite group in which to push their cooperation and improvement.

Is Eurocontrol´s structure that good to imitate it that closely, Zithromax recreational. Order Zithromax from United States pharmacy, Then why that much criticism?

Finally what will the relationship between FABEC, the European Commission and other Eurocontrol states be in the future, after Zithromax, Zithromax pictures, or better, given another few FABS with a similar structure to that announced by FABEC, low dose Zithromax, Zithromax street price, what will Eurocontrol´s future be?. Zithromax wiki. Zithromax cost. Zithromax duration. No prescription Zithromax online. Zithromax mg. Zithromax description. Buy Zithromax from mexico. Zithromax dangers. Rx free Zithromax. Zithromax steet value. Zithromax use. Zithromax alternatives. Buying Zithromax online over the counter.

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Retin-A For Sale

Retin-A For Sale, Based on some experience observing students learning skills to become air traffic controllers, I gave the following advice in a presentation to students who were about to start their practical phases in an initial Tower course.

Basically this is what I think a student should do in sequencial order to progress well in the practical part of training:

1 Learn the procedures well (because, buy Retin-A online cod, Real brand Retin-A online,   if you don't know what you should do, 1 you won't stand a chance to do it well and 2 you will spend a lot of your mental capacity to think about what should be done), Retin-A trusted pharmacy reviews. Online buy Retin-A without a prescription, 2 Automate basic skills / practices as early as possible, such as:

  • Talking on the frequency using correct phraseology, Retin-A class, Retin-A schedule, whilst manipulating strips

  • Manipulating strips (writing information and reordering them) whilst taking action

  • Follow up actions with necessary coordination.

3 Get into the custom (as I do not want to call it habit) of Scanning the strips, then the runway, Retin-A wiki, Herbal Retin-A, then the air, to update your situational awareness and to make plans, Retin-A interactions. Retin-A used for, Take action, and recommence with the scanning, Retin-A no prescription. No prescription Retin-A online, Do this continuously.

4 Do not learn situation in boxes (meaning isolated from other situations) but more like pieces of a puzzle (meaning with those intruding and protruding bits which link with other pieces of a puzzle)

Meaning like this: and not like this:

5 In continuation with 4, continuously make links between situations, Retin-A For Sale. Continuously create your image by using pieces of the puzzle.  This is what the controllers refer to as ' I have the picture' meaning I know what is going on in my area of responsibility and I know what I need to do (what procedures to apply, Retin-A for sale, Purchase Retin-A online no prescription, which actions to take and in what order of priority).

6 Use logic and common sense, Retin-A dangers. Retin-A results, In air traffic control, procedures are applied for a reason, fast shipping Retin-A. Retin-A natural, UNDERSTAND the reason before applying something, otherwise you are just parrot applying what you have been told, Retin-A photos. Retin-A For Sale, 7 And finally DO NOT LEARN situations or exercises by heart. Retin-A alternatives, Air traffic control is a complex system where the environment (weather, type of aircraft, comprar en línea Retin-A, comprar Retin-A baratos, Retin-A recreational, technology, ...) and different people (with different reaction rates, my Retin-A experience, Retin-A from canadian pharmacy, different situational contexts, etc.) interact continuously, Retin-A over the counter. Buy cheap Retin-A, Even if many situations resemble each other, no 2 situations are exactly the same, Retin-A australia, uk, us, usa, Retin-A overnight, and it is enough for 1 parameter to change, e.g, Retin-A long term. Where can i find Retin-A online, delaying 1 aircraft, a wind change, Retin-A street price, Buy Retin-A online cod, different type of aircraft, etc, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Retin-A blogs, to have a complete different situation.
Learning situations by heart (and I know that many students fall into the temptation to learn parts of the examinations by heart based on what other students tell them - even if they have no guarantee that it is exactly the same exam that they will do) is most of the times DETREMENAL to your performance, online Retin-A without a prescription, Retin-A cost, because you stop acting by using your awareness, understanding and appreciation of a situation and start reacting mechanically to a scenario, real brand Retin-A online. Where can i buy Retin-A online, With these 7 tips, I hope that if you are a future student, Retin-A description, Buy Retin-A from canada, you will have some more help as on how to learn effectively during practical training.  If you are an instructor, maybe you can use some of these tips, or contribute by providing others.

And you, instructor, students, or controller alike, what do you think. Leave us a comment...

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Flagyl For Sale, A new edition of my favourite ATC related magazine: Hindsight from Eurocontrol, is out now.

This edition focuses on fatigue in air traffic control, canada, mexico, india. After Flagyl, The articles presented range from how fatigue can affect performance to practical hints on how to use caffeine (and how not to abuse it!) to combat fatigue.

The magazine blends the theoretical with the practical in a perfect way, Flagyl dosage. Where can i order Flagyl without prescription, It is an easy but useful read in these hot (in some places at least) summer months, not to just read at work, Flagyl brand name, Where can i buy cheapest Flagyl online, but also to take to the beach or home and read before a sweet summer siesta ;)

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Clomid For Sale, Almost a decade ago now, (SES1 was adopted in october 2001), the idea of the FABs came by. The European Commission wanted EU member states to create functional airspace blocks in upper european airspace which do away with constraints due to national boarders and improve the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the European ATM system, Clomid canada, mexico, india. My Clomid experience, During SES1, the commission left the intitiative to its member states and alliances between states and their ANSPs were happening slowly, herbal Clomid. Doses Clomid work, In 2008, with SESII and seeing that nothing much had happened since, Clomid from mexico, Clomid street price, the revised regulation stated that each member state should be part of a FAB by 2012.

With this rate, Clomid used for, Clomid gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, if ever this will happen, the first FABs will operate at least a decade and a half after their inception - And it is still to be proved that they will bring with them the advocated gains in efficiency and cost effectiveness, kjøpe Clomid på nett, köpa Clomid online.

But what makes me somewhat wonder is their name:  Functional, Clomid For Sale. Clomid alternatives, To get neighbouring states to work together through a regulation, is that really functional or is it more Political, discount Clomid. Clomid trusted pharmacy reviews, If they were really to be 'functional' why limit the agreements to neighbouring states on upper airspace?  For me, it would be more functional if for example:

  • All the oceanic centres: Scotland, Clomid dangers, Canada, mexico, india, Ireland, France and Portugal would join into one block, Clomid pics. Clomid mg, They have the same function, they can gain economy of scale for providing the same service with same expertise, Clomid duration, Is Clomid addictive, same structure, same equipment...

  • Or why would airports of a similar scale and traffic type not come together?  For example all hub airports: Heathrow, cheap Clomid, Clomid price, Roissy, Frankfurt, ordering Clomid online, Clomid over the counter, they not have the same function?  Similar management of traffic, of information, where can i buy Clomid online, Clomid images, similar equipment and expertise. Would that not bring added value to the system?

  • Or why lower airspace for stong citypairs E.g, Clomid price, coupon. Frankfurt - Paris  not come together and optimise the flow?

Clomid For Sale, Well, I am not saying that these have to be the solutions, as this is exactly the point. Generic Clomid, A function should be defined depending on a particular need and not simply say that there is only one function and that this is an agreement between neighbouring states for upper airspace.

Real functional blocks would happen when two partners come together and describe the function they will make more efficient by working together.., buy Clomid online no prescription. Where can i buy cheapest Clomid online, Then there is the other conundrum: Is the commission for a liberlised market that would look for efficiencies and for consolidation by itself. Or is it for intervening directly on composition and structure of operations?  I thought it was more of the former, Clomid pharmacy, Order Clomid from mexican pharmacy, but in FABs it is acting more like in the latter. To me it seems it is a hybrid solution which is will not lead too far, Clomid For Sale.

ANS provision should be liberalised, order Clomid from United States pharmacy. Clomid samples, The European union should build a strong safety regulatory framework and should federalise regulation. It should push States to liberalise their ANSPs, buy generic Clomid. Cheap Clomid no rx, In this way the stakeholders of the ANS system (e.g. Clomid For Sale, Airlines) could directly buy shares into ANSPs and drive them to efficiency and cost effectiveness (while being obliged to follow European regulation). It would even allow them to earn from service charges!  Why does the commission push through regulation the creation of Functional airspace blocks (which are NOT functional) and yet allow states (like Ireland for example) with service provision and regulation still under the same corporate structure, Clomid from canadian pharmacy. Purchase Clomid, (e.g. the Irish Aviation Authority)

To conclude:

Functional Airspace Blocks are not functional they are Political, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Purchase Clomid online, Political Airspace Blocks are not Functional but Unfunctional.

So instead of FABs we have P[olitical] U[nfunctional] B[lock]S, effects of Clomid. Buying Clomid online over the counter, And now it is time for a forget our sorrows.

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