Big Data and Air Traffic Management

According to webopedia (webopedia.com) Big Data is a buzzword, or catch-phrase, used to describe a massive volume of both structured and unstructured data that is so large that it's difficult to process using traditional database and software techniques.

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="571"] courtesy of colocarionamerica.com[/caption]

In fact I am using it exactly as that: As a buzzword in my title to try to catch your attention.

Today I have attended a very interesting workshop about Data Science in aviation organized by Innaxis (innaxis.org). But what is data science? Ï have checked a few definitions, and the one I like best is the one given by searchcio.techtarget.com which says that: "Data science is the study of where information comes from, what it represents and how it can be turned into a valuable resource…"

So, what about data science and air traffic management?

Well, if we think about it, increased awareness of data science (and the use of buzzwords like ‘big data’) in the last few years is one of the next (or present) natural evolutions of the greater digital revolution: first we accelerate the generation of data, and commodatise its storage and processing power, and next we think of generating value from all this data.

But indeed it makes sense. To take other industries as a benchmark, companies are aware nowadays not only that the data they have collected and are collaterally collecting can have value to generate new business and to render current operations more efficient, but they now have started to pro-actively look for ways of capturing even more data so as to accelerate further this value creation - Thinking about how companies like google, facebook, credit card and telecommunication companies, just to mention a few, are gathering our data on purpose (and for free) to generate further revenue for themselves is scary and somewhat perverse... However, it is reality and the aim of this workshop was to see how all the data that we are gathering in aviation (accidentally or purposefully (structured or unstructured, if I understand the jargon well)) can be used to generate more value for us.

As one of the presenters put it, the value could be one of three types:

  1. to generate new income,
  2. to help in decision making and to render the system more efficient, and
  3. to reduce risk, thus making it more safe.

And the three objectives are applicable for aviation: In ATM, we are generally looking at making the system safer and more efficient. Other segments of aviation are looking for new income.

During the workshop we listened to 4 different operationally-concerned presenters (2 from the airline world, another from an aircraft manufacturer and one from ATM) explain that they are collecting a lot of data and that some of it is being used to create value, for example to create capacity, to compute the best flying profiles or to improve the airline safety records. Yet, I felt that the underlying thread was one which said: we have a lot of data which we are under using: Data Scientists, please come help us find ways of how we can generate more benefit from this data. (and here we are back to the big data definition above…)

The workshop continued then with a series of other presentations, this time from professionals in the field of data science whose objectives was to educate us and to give us more background information and to inspire us.

I am sure that the day was fruitful for many, as the idea of gathering aviation operations and data scientists in a room will give many of us ideas for the future.

As for me, apart from thanking once more Innaxis for making this workshop a reality, I come home convinced that data science is a necessity in ATM, if we want to move ahead, if we want to better understand our complex ATM system and if we want to be wise about tomorrow’s decisions on how to enhance safety and efficiency in our industry.

It also gave me an appetite for those mathematical formulas I left 19 years ago; but that is already another story…

...(by the way, can anyone predict the next evolution within the digital revolution? Working on this from now will be worth a rich gold mine...Anyone? Data scientist? Let me know ;)

Another (most probably discriminating) way to reduce fuel consumption in flight

Coincidentally, in the last post about deconflicted 4-d trajectories, I wrote amongst other things on what seems to me to be an innovative way to see efficiency in terms of time elapsed and fuel consumed (rather than the classical distance covered). [caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="228"] Jeh Wadia, the Managing Director of GoAir, stands amidst women, dressed as flight attendants. Reuters[/caption] I write coincidentally because today I read about yet another way of consuming less fuel (and consequentially rendering your flight more efficient...). This idea apparently goes to the management of GoAir, an Indian low-cost airline. The guardian [click here to read the article] reports that management of GoAir decided to start hiring female only cabin crew. This, they say (and its true but discriminatory in many countries - don't know about India) will reduce the flying weight by 20kg per cabin crew member, making savings for the company of over €380 000 per year. Well way to go GoAir...maybe next would be to cap the cabin crew's maximum weight, and then, what will be next? If you read so far and are interested in more, here is a better article

De-Conflicted and efficient 4D Trajectories through a Centralised Service

Recently I have had a very interesting discussion about the future of air traffic management with a person who has for a long time studied future concepts to improve efficiency in Air Traffic Control.

4D trajectory: Image embedded from www.onera.fr

I was in Bucharest on a 2 day trip to give presentations about ATM and ATC from an operational perspective to Aeronautical Engineering students at the Polytechnic University of Bucharest. The vice dean, who has read a PHD in 4D Trajectories Optimisation started a discussion on what the vision may be regarding 4D trajectories and on the computing of the most efficient trajectories for flights in terms of energy consumption and time.

He said that whereas he agreed with the common concept that the key towards further efficiencies in the above mentioned areas is to be able to push the traffic situation into proactive management of already de-conflicted situations (eventual gate-to-gate precision trajectory clearances) rather than legacy reactive / tactical ATC based achievement of separation, there were two elements that needed to be enforced. These were:

  • The idea that the trajectory of flights which are at once both de-conflicted from other flights and also the most efficient, should be entrusted to a centralised ground system, and
  • Secondly, that the main criteria for the most efficient trajectory was one based on time and fuel consumption and not on distance covered (that the most efficient route might not be the shortest one).

1. Ground based centralised de-conflicted and efficient precise trajectory clearance:

The idea makes sense, the system should be based on a centralised processor that analyses all flight requests and parameters stemming from all ANSPs and proposes the best trajectory to flights. The term best would be defined as a trajectory which would be de-conflicted from all other flights and most efficient. ATC would be then responsible for monitoring the flight and to act on last minute changes due to unforeseen circumstances. The efficient trajectory would be based on meteorological reports and forecasts, thus making the best use of prevailing winds, etc.

In this model, the Reference Business Trajectory for a flight would be prepared by a centralised regional service based on information from various stakeholders including ANSPs and weather services. The RBT would then be accepted by the airspace user who would fly it knowing it has a high degree of stability (it would not be likely to suffer major revisions whilst in flight), and being the most efficient.

This idea to me makes sense as it marks an evolution of the direction the management of the ATM network has been taking, from Flow Control, to Network Management to perhaps Enhanced Network Management. History has shown that a centralised responsible body, pushed and governed by its stakeholders (such as the case of CFMU and NM) are the most efficient responses to unleashing and enforcing the necessary situations to improve flight efficiency.

2. It is about time and fuel consumption and not distance

 Aircraft with sails. Image courtesy of blog.flying-hobby.net

The second aspect that I found quite innovatory in this discussion I had is that efficiency should be seen in terms of flying time and in terms of energy consumption and that this does not always correlate with distance covered.

The way things are presented today is that the closest we get to the great circle in terms of distance covered between two airports, the more efficient our flight is. But this may not be true if to fly the great circle one ignores wind, for example. (If a head wind component is more important for a given flight, should it fly a great circle trajectory than it would be if the flight steers away from this great circle trajectory into more favourable wind and therefore saves more fuel and/or arrives earlier to destination by doing so – a bit like the case of a boat that has to choose between navigating against the current for a direct route or to let the current steer it in terms of maritime navigation. We need to become more sophisticated when talking about flight trajectory efficiency and how we calculate it. Is it the distance covered? (as we see it shouldn’t be), is it the flying time? Or the energy used to fly? (possibly it should be a calculation based on the component of the last 2).

The above for me is very simple to understand, yet it seems to me as a break through as we always tend to talk about trajectory inefficiencies based on the deviation from the shortest (distance) route and then by computing the fuel and/or time lost as a direct conversion of the distance, whereas what we need to be talking about is on how to make trajectories to be agreed based on the knowledge of winds and of engine performances.

The above seems to me more feasible to be achieved using a centralised service rather than a scattered one. In terms of applicability in the near future I see also that in terms of phases of flight, it may still be difficult to manage these type of trajectories in terminal airspaces and in and around airports, because the incognita in these areas seem to me still too complex to compute and manage (from passengers arriving late to the gate to GA traffic making unpredicted manoeuvres in the air and airside vehicles on the ground.)  However, I could imagine a centralised service presenting on behalf of ANSPSa trajectory contract of this type to the flight in question, based on the current situation and de-conflicted from other traffic from the moment the flight leaves the terminal area of departure to the point it arrives to the terminal are of arrival as something that if worked upon could be made feasible in a foreseeable future (This close to Sesar’s Operational Improvement Step:” Use of Free Routing from Terminal Area Operations-exit to Terminal Area Operations-entry” but rather than ‘free routing’ we should be aiming for a de-conflicted and optimum-efficient precision trajectory clearance from Terminal Area Operations-exit to Terminal Area Operations-entry)

I think this, based on a centralised service and on a real time system wide information management exchange and on the concepts of de-conflicted precision trajectory clearances  which are optimum efficient in terms of a computation of time and fuel consumption, should at least make the base for a serious study into feasibility and into a shared operational concept...

Such was my discussion in Bucharest. I went to teach and as often happens, I came back feeling I have learnt something very significant about the future of air traffic management!

Turkey plans to build 6 runway airport at Istanbul

 I am just republishing news that circulated just over a week ago about the announcement by Turkey that it plans to build one of the biggest airports worldwide at Istanbul. Tenders will be out in May 2013 with start of operations planned for 2017. No other European airport would come close to this. What a missed opportunity not to have Turkey as part of the EU. Here is a link to the news. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e726f572-6577-11e2-a3db-00144feab49a.html#axzz2JwD7VYfC

On the use of simulators during unit training (4 and a 1/2 years later)

Four and a half years ago, I had written an article on this blog about the use of simulators during pre-ojt. Recently, I started pondering again about this, and, having forgotten that I had written that article, I now see that on the fundamentals my opinion has not changed, however it has evolved in a substantial manner.

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="351" caption="Tower Simulator Picture embedded from: http://www.airport-technology.com/"][/caption] To put it in a nutshell, I still believe that there is a clear benefit of using (hi fidelity) simulators during unit training, but whereas then I linked the use to solely pre-OJT, that is preparation for the on the job training, I now see that simulators have the potential to add value in terms of better and more efficient training, not only before OJT but also during this final phase of unit training. I will explain more a bit later but before I just want to note that I have the impression that since I wrote the first article back in 2007, not only the use of simulators in unit training has not increased, but the very term of pre-ojt (and therefore the only link that has existed so far between unit training and simulators) has been disappearing from the radar screen.  A proof of this is that neither the EC directive 2006/23/EC nor the more recent EU regulation 805/11 mention pre-ojt or the use of simulators in unit training any more, whereas Eurocontrol's licensing manual used to. I find this a real pity, especially because with time passing and with technology and automation supposedly (and in many ways is) becoming more accessible, in terms of training we seem to be going in the opposite direction. Unit training. The EU regulation defines unit training as the phase composed of transitional training preparing the student for on the job training and the on the job training itself.  It could almost call unit training `On the job training and anything needed to prepare you for it` Unit training, in my opinion should be better defined as phase of training before the validation of a ratings and rating endorsements and or new unit endorsements which consists of:
  • Learning and practicing local procedures and interaction with the system* in use at the unit
  • Consolidation and more practice time of the skills acquired during the initial phase of training
* by system I mean to refer to procedures, technology and other humans involved Unit training should consist of a number of performance objectives that the student or trainee controller (who I'll call the candidate) need to demonstrate aptitude in before getting the appropriate endorsements on their ATC licence. Based on these performance objectives, the unit training should list training objectives of how the candidate will achieve the performance required. These objectives will be a mixture of time based (e.g. needs a minimum of 100 hours on the position) to practice based (e.g. needs to practice heavy traffic - at 90%-100% of the sector threshold, or needs to practice holdings).  Mostly they should be a mix of both practice and time, that is, it is not enough to say that unit training should last 100 hours, but that the plan should be broken-down into specific items that should be qualified and quantified. For example, the candidate needs to experience a minimum of 10 hours of weekend configuration in busy traffic (needs to be quantified too), or a minimum of 10 hours of busy traffic in thunderstorm conditions. To be honest I am not sure to what extent the above is done. I have the impression (hopefully I am wrong) that whereas some do their plan in this way, others simply limit their work to defining a minimum number of hours at the end of which the candidate is safely handling traffic. The use of simulators in all this. Pre-OJT and In-OJT Let us start by saying that Unit training is very expensive. The longer the candidate spends training and the more expensive it becomes. Let us continue by saying that at the end of unit training the candidate needs to handle safely and on their own licence traffic at the unit, meaning that the preparation needs to be well made and no corners should be cut. Having said this, before we also used to say that simulators could be used in the case of busy units, so that the candidate is prepared to the heavy traffic in the simulator. A sort of bridge the gap between the initial training traffic and complexity levels and real life. Indeed, simulators can be used in this manner during pre-OJT. But what about less busy environments?  And, is the use of simulators during unit training only limited to pre-OJT? In my opinion we should stop seeing a strictly linear start-finish-start relationship between transitional (theoretical) pre-OJT (simulator) and OJT phases of training and see more unit training as a phase where theory, simulation and life traffic are trained on as needed. (Of course it is understandable that it is logical that one starts with theory and is also assumed that the end objective is to work on live traffic, so the emphasis is on the job) Trained as needed means that nothing should prevent a unit training plan to have parts of on the job training followed by theory and or simulation in any sequence. Nothing prevents, for example, that the candidate is asked to study unit specificity of unusual and emergency procedures at a later stage, after having already started on the job. In the particular case of simulations, my idea is that this should not be limited to pre-OJT and to busy units, but should be used as pre and in-OJT in busy and non busy environments. In busy environments, surely for the reason stated above describing pre-OJT and in both busy and non busy environments because life traffic situations cannot be managed to always efficiently fulfil training objectives. In non busy environments some relatively complex situations which do not happen often which may take months to appear in real life, and may even appear when the candidate is off duty.  In busy environments, the high and complex traffic levels are not a guarantee that the mix of situations cover all the objectives described in the unit training plan will occur. For example, heavy summer traffic in an airport, whilst the candidate is training, does not mean that the candidate will experience the low visibility or snow conditions typical of late autumn and winter. So what would be the option if the candidate started training at the tower in March: wait until January of the following year so that they experience snow? Get them ready for check-out anyhow in September once they accomplish their training hours? or during the OJT phase take them off real life for a week, put them in a hi fidelity simulator, provide them with a true replica of the tower, in winter conditions and with  a traffic sample of a number of complex days recorded in previous seasons?  In the name of safety (to cover all objectives) and efficiency (not to let a resource wait to be used operationally for 6 months) I would use In-OJT simulator if it were available. And we have not covered the use of simulators to train candidates specifically to unusual and emergency procedures applied to their unit, where for me it is evident that a replica simulator SHOULD be used. Conclusion In my opinion many of us in unit training are missing the opportunity of making things more efficient and possibly increasing safety by further using simulators. With every year that passes, simulators gain in performance and lose in cost, yet we are not using them more. On top of this, regulation, at least in Europe, is not helping us as not only is not maturing their possible use, but has in the past 5 years even reduced their visibility within the documents available. We should use simulators well, to the benefit of safety and efficiency. Mainly, we should simulators more.

Zithromax For Sale

I have just read the following news article from the CANSO News service: http://www.canso.org/cms/showpage.aspx?id=3379

¨FABEC States are Establishing Formal Structures


Functional Airspace Block Europe Central (FABEC) has initiated the formal change from project status to operational status










 
 

Zithromax For Sale, On 19 October, the first Provisional FABEC Council meeting took place. Effects of Zithromax, With this meeting, FABEC has initiated the formal change from project status to operational status, purchase Zithromax for sale. Zithromax from canada, By building up the structures almost one and half years before the formal deadline set by the European Commission, the six FABEC States Belgium, Zithromax treatment, Where to buy Zithromax, France, Germany, Zithromax no prescription, Zithromax without prescription, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland strongly underline their commitment to improve cooperation in air navigation services to enhance safety, order Zithromax no prescription, Zithromax online cod, capacity and flight efficiency in the FABEC airspace. The FABEC Council will be the main governance body of the FABEC Cooperation as laid down in the FABEC Treaty which is under national ratification.


To safeguard the progress and to develop concrete improvements, Zithromax price, Online buying Zithromax hcl, the FABEC Council will be supported by Committees and the FABEC States Bureau. In addition, Zithromax canada, mexico, india, Buy Zithromax from canada, the FABEC Council decided to establish an Air Navigations Service Provider Consultative Board whose task is to advise the FABEC Council on air navigation services aspects. All FABEC bodies are composed of civil and military representatives and will be provisional until the FABEC Treaty has been ratified by all countries.


FABEC brings together the six States of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland, their civil and military air navigation service providers as well as EUROCONTROL's four-State air traffic control centre in Maastricht, Zithromax For Sale. The civil FABEC ANSPs employ a total of 17, buy no prescription Zithromax online, Zithromax blogs, 700 people. 5, what is Zithromax, Is Zithromax addictive, 400 are traffic controllers. 55 % of all European traffic takes place in the FABEC area. ¨


When I read this, Zithromax pharmacy, Online Zithromax without a prescription, I could not help not thinking of the similarities with the Eurocontrol (and European bureaucracy) structure:

  • Governed by a Provisional Council (Eurocontrol has exactly had a Provisional Council since the 1990ies)

  • The FABEC council will be supported by committees....so does Eurocontrol

  • FABEC will establish an Air Navigation Service Provider Consultative Board....So does Eurocontrol, It has an ANS Board

  • All FABEC bodies composed of civil and military representatives...So does Eurocontrol

  • There is a FABEC treaty which still needs to be ratified by all countires (this the name of Provisional for the council) so exactly does Eurocontrol.

  • Finally the mission / commitment: ¨ their commitment to improve cooperation in air navigation services to enhance safety, cheap Zithromax, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews, capacity and flight efficiency in the FABEC airspace¨ Is this not the same for Eurocontrol?


So my questions are: Is Eurocontrol too ´big´ that the core states need an elite group in which to push their cooperation and improvement.

Is Eurocontrol´s structure that good to imitate it that closely, Zithromax recreational. Order Zithromax from United States pharmacy, Then why that much criticism?

Finally what will the relationship between FABEC, the European Commission and other Eurocontrol states be in the future, after Zithromax, Zithromax pictures, or better, given another few FABS with a similar structure to that announced by FABEC, low dose Zithromax, Zithromax street price, what will Eurocontrol´s future be?. Zithromax wiki. Zithromax cost. Zithromax duration. No prescription Zithromax online. Zithromax mg. Zithromax description. Buy Zithromax from mexico. Zithromax dangers. Rx free Zithromax. Zithromax steet value. Zithromax use. Zithromax alternatives. Buying Zithromax online over the counter.

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Buy Clomid Without Prescription, In this post I would like to introduce you to a website I have discovered recently.

This website is the OBSA: The Observatory of Sustainability in Aviation: www.obsa.org

This observatory is  a reference point on the analysis of the sustainability of the triple bottom line: environment, ordering Clomid online, Buy Clomid from mexico, social and economic factors on the aviation sector.

Of the triple bottom line, get Clomid, Order Clomid online overnight delivery no prescription, environment seems to be the one winning most shares, but to its merit, Clomid without a prescription, Clomid duration, finally, I found a one spot shop where I can find answers to some of the questions I asked in previous posts about the environment and the future of aviation, order Clomid from mexican pharmacy. Clomid pics, One very interesting theme for me is the information given about bio fuels. Now I can read and dig further into where the industry is heading towards in this area.  Well done to OBSA, about Clomid. Purchase Clomid for sale, As a word of improvement, I notice that the English site contain unfortunately only a fragment of  its Spanish equivalent, Clomid forum. Generic Clomid, From my knowledge, OBSA seems to be on the leading edge of information about sustainability in aviation in Europe, buy generic Clomid, Clomid dose, if not world-wide. A more complete English site could give further coverage to this valuable work, Clomid reviews. Is Clomid safe, And now I am going to read some more articles through OBSA and most probably I will update some of my previous posts related with environment...

(OBSA is an independent project, initiative of the Spanish State company SENASA.), buy no prescription Clomid online. Buy cheap Clomid no rx. Kjøpe Clomid på nett, köpa Clomid online. Purchase Clomid. Australia, uk, us, usa. Online buying Clomid. Clomid treatment. Clomid samples. Cheap Clomid. Clomid gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Where can i cheapest Clomid online. Clomid price, coupon. Doses Clomid work. Order Clomid from United States pharmacy. Clomid maximum dosage. Where to buy Clomid. Clomid online cod. Online buying Clomid hcl. Clomid pharmacy. Clomid price. Clomid mg. Purchase Clomid online. Buying Clomid online over the counter. Buy Clomid without a prescription.

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Clomid For Sale

Clomid For Sale, Almost a decade ago now, (SES1 was adopted in october 2001), the idea of the FABs came by. The European Commission wanted EU member states to create functional airspace blocks in upper european airspace which do away with constraints due to national boarders and improve the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the European ATM system, Clomid canada, mexico, india. My Clomid experience, During SES1, the commission left the intitiative to its member states and alliances between states and their ANSPs were happening slowly, herbal Clomid. Doses Clomid work, In 2008, with SESII and seeing that nothing much had happened since, Clomid from mexico, Clomid street price, the revised regulation stated that each member state should be part of a FAB by 2012.

With this rate, Clomid used for, Clomid gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, if ever this will happen, the first FABs will operate at least a decade and a half after their inception - And it is still to be proved that they will bring with them the advocated gains in efficiency and cost effectiveness, kjøpe Clomid på nett, köpa Clomid online.

But what makes me somewhat wonder is their name:  Functional, Clomid For Sale. Clomid alternatives, To get neighbouring states to work together through a regulation, is that really functional or is it more Political, discount Clomid. Clomid trusted pharmacy reviews, If they were really to be 'functional' why limit the agreements to neighbouring states on upper airspace?  For me, it would be more functional if for example:


  • All the oceanic centres: Scotland, Clomid dangers, Canada, mexico, india, Ireland, France and Portugal would join into one block, Clomid pics. Clomid mg, They have the same function, they can gain economy of scale for providing the same service with same expertise, Clomid duration, Is Clomid addictive, same structure, same equipment...

  • Or why would airports of a similar scale and traffic type not come together?  For example all hub airports: Heathrow, cheap Clomid, Clomid price, Roissy, Frankfurt, ordering Clomid online, Clomid over the counter, Schiphol...do they not have the same function?  Similar management of traffic, of information, where can i buy Clomid online, Clomid images, similar equipment and expertise. Would that not bring added value to the system?

  • Or why lower airspace for stong citypairs E.g, Clomid price, coupon. Frankfurt - Paris  not come together and optimise the flow?

Clomid For Sale, Well, I am not saying that these have to be the solutions, as this is exactly the point. Generic Clomid, A function should be defined depending on a particular need and not simply say that there is only one function and that this is an agreement between neighbouring states for upper airspace.

Real functional blocks would happen when two partners come together and describe the function they will make more efficient by working together.., buy Clomid online no prescription. Where can i buy cheapest Clomid online, Then there is the other conundrum: Is the commission for a liberlised market that would look for efficiencies and for consolidation by itself. Or is it for intervening directly on composition and structure of operations?  I thought it was more of the former, Clomid pharmacy, Order Clomid from mexican pharmacy, but in FABs it is acting more like in the latter. To me it seems it is a hybrid solution which is will not lead too far, Clomid For Sale.

ANS provision should be liberalised, order Clomid from United States pharmacy. Clomid samples, The European union should build a strong safety regulatory framework and should federalise regulation. It should push States to liberalise their ANSPs, buy generic Clomid. Cheap Clomid no rx, In this way the stakeholders of the ANS system (e.g. Clomid For Sale, Airlines) could directly buy shares into ANSPs and drive them to efficiency and cost effectiveness (while being obliged to follow European regulation). It would even allow them to earn from service charges!  Why does the commission push through regulation the creation of Functional airspace blocks (which are NOT functional) and yet allow states (like Ireland for example) with service provision and regulation still under the same corporate structure, Clomid from canadian pharmacy. Purchase Clomid, (e.g. the Irish Aviation Authority)

To conclude:

Functional Airspace Blocks are not functional they are Political, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Purchase Clomid online, Political Airspace Blocks are not Functional but Unfunctional.

So instead of FABs we have P[olitical] U[nfunctional] B[lock]S, effects of Clomid. Buying Clomid online over the counter, And now it is time for a drink...to forget our sorrows.

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Prednisolone For Sale, As you can see from my previous posts, I recently got interested in the definitions of terms in ATM. I then started my own list with references on this blog, Prednisolone class. Prednisolone pharmacy, Coincidentally Eurocontrol has just released its ATM lexicon, which is a wiki-based database containing definitions of ATM terms, buy cheap Prednisolone. Order Prednisolone no prescription,


The site claims it has over 600 entries as I am writing and aims for over 1500 by the end of 2010.

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