According to webopedia (webopedia.com) Big Data is a buzzword, or catch-phrase, used to describe a massive volume of both structured and unstructured data that is so large that it's difficult to process using traditional database and software techniques.[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="571"] courtesy of colocarionamerica.com[/caption]
In fact I am using it exactly as that: As a buzzword in my title to try to catch your attention.
Today I have attended a very interesting workshop about Data Science in aviation organized by Innaxis (innaxis.org). But what is data science? Ï have checked a few definitions, and the one I like best is the one given by searchcio.techtarget.com which says that: "Data science is the study of where information comes from, what it represents and how it can be turned into a valuable resource…"
So, what about data science and air traffic management?
Well, if we think about it, increased awareness of data science (and the use of buzzwords like ‘big data’) in the last few years is one of the next (or present) natural evolutions of the greater digital revolution: first we accelerate the generation of data, and commodatise its storage and processing power, and next we think of generating value from all this data.
But indeed it makes sense. To take other industries as a benchmark, companies are aware nowadays not only that the data they have collected and are collaterally collecting can have value to generate new business and to render current operations more efficient, but they now have started to pro-actively look for ways of capturing even more data so as to accelerate further this value creation - Thinking about how companies like google, facebook, credit card and telecommunication companies, just to mention a few, are gathering our data on purpose (and for free) to generate further revenue for themselves is scary and somewhat perverse... However, it is reality and the aim of this workshop was to see how all the data that we are gathering in aviation (accidentally or purposefully (structured or unstructured, if I understand the jargon well)) can be used to generate more value for us.
As one of the presenters put it, the value could be one of three types:
- to generate new income,
- to help in decision making and to render the system more efficient, and
- to reduce risk, thus making it more safe.
And the three objectives are applicable for aviation: In ATM, we are generally looking at making the system safer and more efficient. Other segments of aviation are looking for new income.
During the workshop we listened to 4 different operationally-concerned presenters (2 from the airline world, another from an aircraft manufacturer and one from ATM) explain that they are collecting a lot of data and that some of it is being used to create value, for example to create capacity, to compute the best flying profiles or to improve the airline safety records. Yet, I felt that the underlying thread was one which said: we have a lot of data which we are under using: Data Scientists, please come help us find ways of how we can generate more benefit from this data. (and here we are back to the big data definition above…)
The workshop continued then with a series of other presentations, this time from professionals in the field of data science whose objectives was to educate us and to give us more background information and to inspire us.
I am sure that the day was fruitful for many, as the idea of gathering aviation operations and data scientists in a room will give many of us ideas for the future.
As for me, apart from thanking once more Innaxis for making this workshop a reality, I come home convinced that data science is a necessity in ATM, if we want to move ahead, if we want to better understand our complex ATM system and if we want to be wise about tomorrow’s decisions on how to enhance safety and efficiency in our industry.
It also gave me an appetite for those mathematical formulas I left 19 years ago; but that is already another story…
...(by the way, can anyone predict the next evolution within the digital revolution? Working on this from now will be worth a rich gold mine...Anyone? Data scientist? Let me know ;)
Recently I have had a very interesting discussion about the future of air traffic management with a person who has for a long time studied future concepts to improve efficiency in Air Traffic Control.
I was in Bucharest on a 2 day trip to give presentations about ATM and ATC from an operational perspective to Aeronautical Engineering students at the Polytechnic University of Bucharest. The vice dean, who has read a PHD in 4D Trajectories Optimisation started a discussion on what the vision may be regarding 4D trajectories and on the computing of the most efficient trajectories for flights in terms of energy consumption and time.
He said that whereas he agreed with the common concept that the key towards further efficiencies in the above mentioned areas is to be able to push the traffic situation into proactive management of already de-conflicted situations (eventual gate-to-gate precision trajectory clearances) rather than legacy reactive / tactical ATC based achievement of separation, there were two elements that needed to be enforced. These were:
- The idea that the trajectory of flights which are at once both de-conflicted from other flights and also the most efficient, should be entrusted to a centralised ground system, and
- Secondly, that the main criteria for the most efficient trajectory was one based on time and fuel consumption and not on distance covered (that the most efficient route might not be the shortest one).
1. Ground based centralised de-conflicted and efficient precise trajectory clearance:
The idea makes sense, the system should be based on a centralised processor that analyses all flight requests and parameters stemming from all ANSPs and proposes the best trajectory to flights. The term best would be defined as a trajectory which would be de-conflicted from all other flights and most efficient. ATC would be then responsible for monitoring the flight and to act on last minute changes due to unforeseen circumstances. The efficient trajectory would be based on meteorological reports and forecasts, thus making the best use of prevailing winds, etc.
In this model, the Reference Business Trajectory for a flight would be prepared by a centralised regional service based on information from various stakeholders including ANSPs and weather services. The RBT would then be accepted by the airspace user who would fly it knowing it has a high degree of stability (it would not be likely to suffer major revisions whilst in flight), and being the most efficient.
This idea to me makes sense as it marks an evolution of the direction the management of the ATM network has been taking, from Flow Control, to Network Management to perhaps Enhanced Network Management. History has shown that a centralised responsible body, pushed and governed by its stakeholders (such as the case of CFMU and NM) are the most efficient responses to unleashing and enforcing the necessary situations to improve flight efficiency.
2. It is about time and fuel consumption and not distance
The second aspect that I found quite innovatory in this discussion I had is that efficiency should be seen in terms of flying time and in terms of energy consumption and that this does not always correlate with distance covered.
The way things are presented today is that the closest we get to the great circle in terms of distance covered between two airports, the more efficient our flight is. But this may not be true if to fly the great circle one ignores wind, for example. (If a head wind component is more important for a given flight, should it fly a great circle trajectory than it would be if the flight steers away from this great circle trajectory into more favourable wind and therefore saves more fuel and/or arrives earlier to destination by doing so – a bit like the case of a boat that has to choose between navigating against the current for a direct route or to let the current steer it in terms of maritime navigation. We need to become more sophisticated when talking about flight trajectory efficiency and how we calculate it. Is it the distance covered? (as we see it shouldn’t be), is it the flying time? Or the energy used to fly? (possibly it should be a calculation based on the component of the last 2).
The above for me is very simple to understand, yet it seems to me as a break through as we always tend to talk about trajectory inefficiencies based on the deviation from the shortest (distance) route and then by computing the fuel and/or time lost as a direct conversion of the distance, whereas what we need to be talking about is on how to make trajectories to be agreed based on the knowledge of winds and of engine performances.
The above seems to me more feasible to be achieved using a centralised service rather than a scattered one. In terms of applicability in the near future I see also that in terms of phases of flight, it may still be difficult to manage these type of trajectories in terminal airspaces and in and around airports, because the incognita in these areas seem to me still too complex to compute and manage (from passengers arriving late to the gate to GA traffic making unpredicted manoeuvres in the air and airside vehicles on the ground.) However, I could imagine a centralised service presenting on behalf of ANSPSa trajectory contract of this type to the flight in question, based on the current situation and de-conflicted from other traffic from the moment the flight leaves the terminal area of departure to the point it arrives to the terminal are of arrival as something that if worked upon could be made feasible in a foreseeable future (This close to Sesar’s Operational Improvement Step:” Use of Free Routing from Terminal Area Operations-exit to Terminal Area Operations-entry” but rather than ‘free routing’ we should be aiming for a de-conflicted and optimum-efficient precision trajectory clearance from Terminal Area Operations-exit to Terminal Area Operations-entry)
I think this, based on a centralised service and on a real time system wide information management exchange and on the concepts of de-conflicted precision trajectory clearances which are optimum efficient in terms of a computation of time and fuel consumption, should at least make the base for a serious study into feasibility and into a shared operational concept...
Such was my discussion in Bucharest. I went to teach and as often happens, I came back feeling I have learnt something very significant about the future of air traffic management!
Four and a half years ago, I had written an article on this blog about the use of simulators during pre-ojt. Recently, I started pondering again about this, and, having forgotten that I had written that article, I now see that on the fundamentals my opinion has not changed, however it has evolved in a substantial manner.[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="351" caption="Tower Simulator Picture embedded from: http://www.airport-technology.com/"][/caption] To put it in a nutshell, I still believe that there is a clear benefit of using (hi fidelity) simulators during unit training, but whereas then I linked the use to solely pre-OJT, that is preparation for the on the job training, I now see that simulators have the potential to add value in terms of better and more efficient training, not only before OJT but also during this final phase of unit training. I will explain more a bit later but before I just want to note that I have the impression that since I wrote the first article back in 2007, not only the use of simulators in unit training has not increased, but the very term of pre-ojt (and therefore the only link that has existed so far between unit training and simulators) has been disappearing from the radar screen. A proof of this is that neither the EC directive 2006/23/EC nor the more recent EU regulation 805/11 mention pre-ojt or the use of simulators in unit training any more, whereas Eurocontrol's licensing manual used to. I find this a real pity, especially because with time passing and with technology and automation supposedly (and in many ways is) becoming more accessible, in terms of training we seem to be going in the opposite direction. Unit training. The EU regulation defines unit training as the phase composed of transitional training preparing the student for on the job training and the on the job training itself. It could almost call unit training `On the job training and anything needed to prepare you for it` Unit training, in my opinion should be better defined as phase of training before the validation of a ratings and rating endorsements and or new unit endorsements which consists of:
- Learning and practicing local procedures and interaction with the system* in use at the unit
- Consolidation and more practice time of the skills acquired during the initial phase of training
I have just read the following news article from the CANSO News service: http://www.canso.org/cms/showpage.aspx?id=3379
¨FABEC States are Establishing Formal Structures
Zithromax For Sale, On 19 October, the first Provisional FABEC Council meeting took place. Effects of Zithromax, With this meeting, FABEC has initiated the formal change from project status to operational status, purchase Zithromax for sale. Zithromax from canada, By building up the structures almost one and half years before the formal deadline set by the European Commission, the six FABEC States Belgium, Zithromax treatment, Where to buy Zithromax, France, Germany, Zithromax no prescription, Zithromax without prescription, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland strongly underline their commitment to improve cooperation in air navigation services to enhance safety, order Zithromax no prescription, Zithromax online cod, capacity and flight efficiency in the FABEC airspace. The FABEC Council will be the main governance body of the FABEC Cooperation as laid down in the FABEC Treaty which is under national ratification.
To safeguard the progress and to develop concrete improvements, Zithromax price, Online buying Zithromax hcl, the FABEC Council will be supported by Committees and the FABEC States Bureau. In addition, Zithromax canada, mexico, india, Buy Zithromax from canada, the FABEC Council decided to establish an Air Navigations Service Provider Consultative Board whose task is to advise the FABEC Council on air navigation services aspects. All FABEC bodies are composed of civil and military representatives and will be provisional until the FABEC Treaty has been ratified by all countries.
FABEC brings together the six States of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland, their civil and military air navigation service providers as well as EUROCONTROL's four-State air traffic control centre in Maastricht, Zithromax For Sale. The civil FABEC ANSPs employ a total of 17, buy no prescription Zithromax online, Zithromax blogs, 700 people. 5, what is Zithromax, Is Zithromax addictive, 400 are traffic controllers. 55 % of all European traffic takes place in the FABEC area. ¨
When I read this, Zithromax pharmacy, Online Zithromax without a prescription, I could not help not thinking of the similarities with the Eurocontrol (and European bureaucracy) structure:
- Governed by a Provisional Council (Eurocontrol has exactly had a Provisional Council since the 1990ies)
- The FABEC council will be supported by committees....so does Eurocontrol
- FABEC will establish an Air Navigation Service Provider Consultative Board....So does Eurocontrol, It has an ANS Board
- All FABEC bodies composed of civil and military representatives...So does Eurocontrol
- There is a FABEC treaty which still needs to be ratified by all countires (this the name of Provisional for the council) so exactly does Eurocontrol.
- Finally the mission / commitment: ¨ their commitment to improve cooperation in air navigation services to enhance safety, cheap Zithromax, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews, capacity and flight efficiency in the FABEC airspace¨ Is this not the same for Eurocontrol?
So my questions are: Is Eurocontrol too ´big´ that the core states need an elite group in which to push their cooperation and improvement.
Is Eurocontrol´s structure that good to imitate it that closely, Zithromax recreational. Order Zithromax from United States pharmacy, Then why that much criticism?
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Buy Clomid Without Prescription, In this post I would like to introduce you to a website I have discovered recently.
This website is the OBSA: The Observatory of Sustainability in Aviation: www.obsa.org
This observatory is a reference point on the analysis of the sustainability of the triple bottom line: environment, ordering Clomid online, Buy Clomid from mexico, social and economic factors on the aviation sector.
Of the triple bottom line, get Clomid, Order Clomid online overnight delivery no prescription, environment seems to be the one winning most shares, but to its merit, Clomid without a prescription, Clomid duration, finally, I found a one spot shop where I can find answers to some of the questions I asked in previous posts about the environment and the future of aviation, order Clomid from mexican pharmacy. Clomid pics, One very interesting theme for me is the information given about bio fuels. Now I can read and dig further into where the industry is heading towards in this area. Well done to OBSA, about Clomid. Purchase Clomid for sale, As a word of improvement, I notice that the English site contain unfortunately only a fragment of its Spanish equivalent, Clomid forum. Generic Clomid, From my knowledge, OBSA seems to be on the leading edge of information about sustainability in aviation in Europe, buy generic Clomid, Clomid dose, if not world-wide. A more complete English site could give further coverage to this valuable work, Clomid reviews. Is Clomid safe, And now I am going to read some more articles through OBSA and most probably I will update some of my previous posts related with environment...
(OBSA is an independent project, initiative of the Spanish State company SENASA.), buy no prescription Clomid online. Buy cheap Clomid no rx. Kjøpe Clomid på nett, köpa Clomid online. Purchase Clomid. Australia, uk, us, usa. Online buying Clomid. Clomid treatment. Clomid samples. Cheap Clomid. Clomid gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Where can i cheapest Clomid online. Clomid price, coupon. Doses Clomid work. Order Clomid from United States pharmacy. Clomid maximum dosage. Where to buy Clomid. Clomid online cod. Online buying Clomid hcl. Clomid pharmacy. Clomid price. Clomid mg. Purchase Clomid online. Buying Clomid online over the counter. Buy Clomid without a prescription.
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Clomid For Sale, Almost a decade ago now, (SES1 was adopted in october 2001), the idea of the FABs came by. The European Commission wanted EU member states to create functional airspace blocks in upper european airspace which do away with constraints due to national boarders and improve the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the European ATM system, Clomid canada, mexico, india. My Clomid experience, During SES1, the commission left the intitiative to its member states and alliances between states and their ANSPs were happening slowly, herbal Clomid. Doses Clomid work, In 2008, with SESII and seeing that nothing much had happened since, Clomid from mexico, Clomid street price, the revised regulation stated that each member state should be part of a FAB by 2012.
With this rate, Clomid used for, Clomid gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, if ever this will happen, the first FABs will operate at least a decade and a half after their inception - And it is still to be proved that they will bring with them the advocated gains in efficiency and cost effectiveness, kjøpe Clomid på nett, köpa Clomid online.
But what makes me somewhat wonder is their name: Functional, Clomid For Sale. Clomid alternatives, To get neighbouring states to work together through a regulation, is that really functional or is it more Political, discount Clomid. Clomid trusted pharmacy reviews, If they were really to be 'functional' why limit the agreements to neighbouring states on upper airspace? For me, it would be more functional if for example:
- All the oceanic centres: Scotland, Clomid dangers, Canada, mexico, india, Ireland, France and Portugal would join into one block, Clomid pics. Clomid mg, They have the same function, they can gain economy of scale for providing the same service with same expertise, Clomid duration, Is Clomid addictive, same structure, same equipment...
- Or why would airports of a similar scale and traffic type not come together? For example all hub airports: Heathrow, cheap Clomid, Clomid price, Roissy, Frankfurt, ordering Clomid online, Clomid over the counter, Schiphol...do they not have the same function? Similar management of traffic, of information, where can i buy Clomid online, Clomid images, similar equipment and expertise. Would that not bring added value to the system?
- Or why lower airspace for stong citypairs E.g, Clomid price, coupon. Frankfurt - Paris not come together and optimise the flow?
Real functional blocks would happen when two partners come together and describe the function they will make more efficient by working together.., buy Clomid online no prescription. Where can i buy cheapest Clomid online, Then there is the other conundrum: Is the commission for a liberlised market that would look for efficiencies and for consolidation by itself. Or is it for intervening directly on composition and structure of operations? I thought it was more of the former, Clomid pharmacy, Order Clomid from mexican pharmacy, but in FABs it is acting more like in the latter. To me it seems it is a hybrid solution which is will not lead too far, Clomid For Sale.
ANS provision should be liberalised, order Clomid from United States pharmacy. Clomid samples, The European union should build a strong safety regulatory framework and should federalise regulation. It should push States to liberalise their ANSPs, buy generic Clomid. Cheap Clomid no rx, In this way the stakeholders of the ANS system (e.g. Clomid For Sale, Airlines) could directly buy shares into ANSPs and drive them to efficiency and cost effectiveness (while being obliged to follow European regulation). It would even allow them to earn from service charges! Why does the commission push through regulation the creation of Functional airspace blocks (which are NOT functional) and yet allow states (like Ireland for example) with service provision and regulation still under the same corporate structure, Clomid from canadian pharmacy. Purchase Clomid, (e.g. the Irish Aviation Authority)
Functional Airspace Blocks are not functional they are Political, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Purchase Clomid online, Political Airspace Blocks are not Functional but Unfunctional.
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Prednisolone For Sale, As you can see from my previous posts, I recently got interested in the definitions of terms in ATM. I then started my own list with references on this blog, Prednisolone class. Prednisolone pharmacy, Coincidentally Eurocontrol has just released its ATM lexicon, which is a wiki-based database containing definitions of ATM terms, buy cheap Prednisolone. Order Prednisolone no prescription,
The site claims it has over 600 entries as I am writing and aims for over 1500 by the end of 2010.
To access this free resource click here
I ran a cross check with my list of definitions which can be accessed by clicking the 'Definitions' tab on the top right hand side of this blog, effects of Prednisolone. Prednisolone overnight, I have deleted all the terms I had entered but which are found in the ATM Lexicon. I have decided to keep those definitions which are either still missing from the ATM Lexicon, order Prednisolone online c.o.d, After Prednisolone, or where I found another source with diverging definitions. Purchase Prednisolone online no prescription. Prednisolone reviews. Buy Prednisolone no prescription. Online buying Prednisolone. Prednisolone canada, mexico, india. Prednisolone pictures. Prednisolone alternatives. Buy Prednisolone from canada. Where can i order Prednisolone without prescription. Discount Prednisolone. Prednisolone australia, uk, us, usa. Prednisolone use. Cheap Prednisolone no rx. No prescription Prednisolone online. Prednisolone from mexico. Where can i order Prednisolone without prescription. Prednisolone without a prescription. Buy Prednisolone online no prescription. Buy Prednisolone from canada. Prednisolone pics. Online buying Prednisolone. Prednisolone dangers. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Prednisolone price, coupon. Prednisolone class. Where can i buy Prednisolone online. Prednisolone pharmacy. Prednisolone recreational. Prednisolone forum. Prednisolone wiki. Canada, mexico, india. Purchase Prednisolone online no prescription.
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