Back seat drivers: An under valued safety net (or: On perception and decision making)

Have you ever been driving with your mother on the passenger's seat identifying all sort of potential threats? Well, this is what I am talking about: to what extent is this a nuisance and to what extent, if used effectively and appropriately, could serve us as a safety net in our safety critical work:

In human factors we best describe the way how we arrive to take decisions through what is called the Human Information Processing Model.

In a nutshell we receive data from outside in the form of stimuli. This 'raw data' is received through our senses. We perceive this data through an internal processing system (something like when a computer processes data to produce information). Internally we process the data through a series of iterations between our short term (or working) memory, which temporarily keeps the data we receive and the longer term memory from which we retrieved learned information (that we acquired through previous experiences). We mish-mash, reiterate, and make sense of the situation (situational awareness). This awareness is kept in the short term memory, and through it we take decisions.

I put a drawing to illustrate the process.

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="272"] Human information process model[/caption]

In safety critical operations (but not just) we want to take correct decisions, and using the model above, the correctness depends on a number of factors which include our ability of physically receive the data, to have a will functioning long and short term memory and that the long term memory contains relevant content (skill / knowledge / experience).

But we also depend on perception.

And perception can be tricked. What we perceive depends on context, on the situation, on our long term memory and on a number of other factors that are beyond our control. Beyond our control because we have evolved this way. We need this perception processing to help us make sense of the world, it is just that sometimes, our perception is not adapted to the situation and it tricks us...and we take wrong decisions...

Watch this very interesting TED video on perception if you have any doubts on what I am saying.

 Convinced?

Well, then what do we do?

The first step is to be aware of it (as many people unfortunately are not and think that what they perceive is the same as what is physically out there.)

The second is to find methods for mitigation and what can these be in our safety critical operations?

Well here is some advise:

1. If we are designers of systems, procedures, programmes, etc. we should be aware and sensible about perception and how our brain works. In small projects where resources and impact are limited, we should consider whether we could create situations, where without wanting, the minds of those operating could be 'tricked' into wrong decisions. If we are talking about bigger projects, then we should involve Human Factors Experts and have a process like Eurocontrol's Human Factors' Case.

2. If we are those on the hot seat, we will need to find ways to mitigate. Here are some:

Train ourselves to identify patterns where things may start going into a wrong direction: Example of these, is to be aware of the environment and identify feedback received by it, and start noticing and questioning when this feedback seems 'strange'. It is like sharpening our instincts. This can be done through training, but mainly involves experience, power of observation and self criticism.

Another mitigation is team situational awareness. Having a team working we are adding more resources that can identify patterns and we are adding diversity to perception bias. Team situational awareness means that other team members, are aware of what you are doing and are following the same situation but from a slightly different role / angle. The trick is not to do the same tasks, as here we are reducing diversity. It is to have complimentary tasks whilst sharing similar awareness of the situation. How do this? To start with we need to have a minimum degree of competence in the tasks. We also need to be familiar with the team, and with the individuals composing the team, how we all work, procedures, practices, etc. This is a process which is built over time and through meetings, sharing of experiences, etc. We need to have agreed ways of working as a team, not to give each other unnecessary frights (remember your mother on the passengers seat giving you the fright of your life?) Then the person making the decisions (I am thinking short term decisions, such as taking actions whilst controlling aircraft or maintaining a system) should articulate the decision they are about to take. This allows the other team member(s) to follow the process and to be aware of what is going on. Other team members would need to keep to their tasks and not get 100% involved in the task of the team member they are helping out (we're not talking of 2 drivers here). For example, if we have a situation with an executive controller and a coordinator, those who have experienced this would agree that whilst both following the same situation, if the roles are respected, the coordinator is able to keep a view of the broader picture, whilst following what the executive is doing. On the other hand, the executive is focussing on responding and taking an active role in the decisions. As those who have observed someone in the hot seat would tell you, from the back seat you see things that you wonder how come the person acting has not yet seen, yet when the observer switches seats and goes into the hot zone, his / her perspective also changes. This happens in every day life with back seat driving - thus the example which gave the title to this post. In ATC this happens with the instructor role for example.

What we need to do is to make the best of this situation and use it to identify issues that are being missed by the hot seat and assist in this way. This is team situational awareness...

To summarise:

  • We experience the environment in a processed manner called perception.
  • While what we perceive feeds into the decisions we take, what we perceive is not necessarly what is going on. This is not a weakness, it is a state of us being human and alive.
  • In order to mitigate this danger we need to first be aware of this.
  • Then we can do a number of things to mitigate further. Two of these are:
    • Train ourselves in identifying feedback patterns from the environment where things seem to be wrong, a sort of sharpening our instincts. This comes with training but mostly with experience
    • Build team situational awareness. For this we need a team. We need to share tasks in a complimentary manner to allow things to be perceived through at least slightly different contexts. We need to articulate our decisions, and we should not be afraid of having situations where one of us is on the hot seat and the other on the back seat. Both are complimentary functions.

 These are the kind of things we at AriaTM teach and facilitate during our Team Resources Management sessions.

Training offered by AriaTM

Since a few months I have developed my own training courses under AriaTM revolving around the improvement of safety and efficiency in ATC through the better preparation and training of ATS personnel.

I have developed the training plans and training material for
  • Team Resources Management
  • On the Job Instructor Trainingariatm_just_logo.jpg
  • ATS Supervisor Management
  • Competence Assessors and Evaluators                         
  • Classroom Instruction Techniques
  • Simulator Instructor Training (and all the refresher training for the courses above)

The courses can be delivered to different Air Traffic Management personnel including ATCOs, ATSEPs, Apron Controllers, Airport airside related personnel, etc. The material is developed based on guidelines and specifications when these are available and on best practice and personal experience, either giving the courses, listening to attendants or from direct experience.

I normally collaborate with other professionals both in the design and in the delivery of these courses, which, I believe, makes the content even richer. I have a 2d portable simulator that I use to enable role play in courses like OJTI, Sim Instructor or Competence Assessor.

My principal model is to go to the client and deliver the training reducing to a maximum the administrative overhead and concentrating on the quality.

I am also open to deliver these courses to individuals if so requested.

Presently I am also working on support to improve English language proficiency.

Should you want more information, please do not hesitate to drop me a line at max@ariatm.com

Do you have the potential to become and air traffic controller? – Test your ATC skills 2

2 years and a half ago I wrote a post on games developed by the German DFS to introduce potential candidate student controllers to the skills necessary to carry out the functions of an air traffic control. You can refer to that post by clicking here.

I have recently discovered a similar pack of games produced by the British NATS designed so that potential candidates could self test (and have some fun, I hope) whether they have the skills NATS will be looking for should they apply for pre selection on an initial course.

The idea is similar to the one presented by the DFS, the skill-set sought overlaps to the German one but in some aspects it is also complimentary.

The NATS pack looks at the ability of:

  • Tracking elements on a screen
  • Memory
  • Spacial Awareness
  • The ability to Sequence and to Separate elements in motion over a 2 dimensional plane

They are good fun and for free, you should try them if you are an aspirant candidate, if you´re looking for a little challenge, or, if you are a controller, to finally see whether you have what it takes! ;)

Here it the link. Well done NATS!

Amoxicillin For Sale

Amoxicillin For Sale, In this article I will look at learning the ATC culture during initial training and the corresponding role of the instructor. But before I begin, a short preface:


Of knowledge and culture.


We could say that to be successful in a particular field one would need a combination of ingredients, rather like a good balanced recipe. These ingredients are:



  •  knowledge of what needs to be done, Amoxicillin dosage,


  • knowledge and application of how to behave in the environment and




  • good doses of luck, Buy Amoxicillin online cod, audacity and timing.




 (this article appeared in the latest issue of the Hindisght magazine)


It would be very interesting to have a look at how luck, audacity and timing play their role in successful ATC, but that would need a separate article with a focus on ¨The other factors¨ (maybe in a future edition of Hindsight?). In this one I will focus on the first two points on the list which, no prescription Amoxicillin online, for the sake of brevity, we could call:



  • Knowledge the one I referred to as ‘knowledge of what needs to be done’ and




  • Culture (short for: ¨understanding and thriving in the culture¨) the I referred to as ‘knowledge and application of how to behave….’




Whereas knowledge could be considered as a ´hard´ component - you know it and apply it or you don´t, culture is softer, Amoxicillin results, and the subtleties of behaviour are harder to teach and/or learn.


 Of learning:


In any learning activity there is both formal and informal learning. Amoxicillin natural, We could say that formal learning is what is contained in a training syllabus and therefore what will be formally taught in a training establishment. Informal learning, on the other hand, is what a person learns that will help them in the tasks they are to carry out, but which is not itself part of the syllabus.


To illustrate the four items above, if we consider a student learning how to drive, then:



  • Knowledge is what the student knows in terms of traffic signs, right of way and of handling of the car.




  • Culture is how to stay calm (or lose it), how to behave in traffic jams or in busy parking lots, when to use or not the horn, etc.




  • Formal learning would be what the student learns on the books and during the practice hours with their instructor.




  • Informal learning would be what they learn (or shouldn´t learn) by observing their father drive through the years.




ATC training


If we apply all the above to initial ATC training, we see that in terms of formal training, we have many hard objectives focusing on the knowledge component – e.g, Amoxicillin For Sale. all the basic subjects like Navigation, Meteorology, ATM, .., Amoxicillin australia, uk, us, usa. (with the exclusion of Human Factors) and all the procedures in the Rating part including most of the practice in the simulator. At the end of this, the student who passes will ¨know what needs to be done¨, Amoxicillin online cod, will obtain a student licence and will be eligible to start unit training.


Formal learning in terms of culture is mainly covered in the Human Factors modules and in others dealing with the professional environment. These modules teach how to ¨behave in the environment¨ and include some application through role play and familiarisation visits.


Amoxicillin For Sale, This is already a very good start, however since the ATC culture is very rich, in my opinion one can do more – and in many schools actually more is done. In the definition of ATC culture, I would include amongst other aspects how to behave in an operations room, where can i buy cheapest Amoxicillin online, how to work in a team, safety culture*, and the concept of service in terms of efficiency and order.


In terms of a training organisation, it is never too early to introduce as much ATC culture to students as possible. It is true that initial training is detached from the operations room and that there are still training phases later on, such as the on the job training, low dose Amoxicillin, when the student will have the opportunity to learn culture. However from experience, on the one hand students are eager for information on how it will feel to work as a controller and are sponges for behaviours and attitudes (good and bad ones) in the ATC world and on the other hand having the students already assimilating part of the culture as early as possible is of great benefit for their understanding of what the ATC world is about.


Culture can be transmitted during training in a number of ways, a couple of which are:



  • imitating the real environment whenever it benefits training and




  • raising awareness amongst the instructional team, especially the simulator instructors, Amoxicillin images, about their function as role models for the profession.




In the rest of this article I will develop on these two aspects which in the end are intrinsically linked with one another.


Imitating the environment


When imitating the life environment during training, it is important to keep the balance between two things:


On the one hand that students are still learning and therefore that it is normal to do, and learn from, after Amoxicillin, mistakes, and


On the other hand that even though they are working in a simulated environment, Amoxicillin dose, there is a certain degree of seriousness and responsibility and that everyone needs to do their best to ensure safe services.


 * how a controller behaves professionally to ensure that while he or she is working, safety is facilitated at all times and that the system within which he or she works maintains an adequate level of safety or improves it), Amoxicillin from canada,


On other aspects, the same should apply: If it is forbidden to use mobile or smart phones in an operational room, Order Amoxicillin online overnight delivery no prescription, the same should be applied in a simulator. If it is a good practice to be at least five minutes early for a hand over in the operational world, then it is also positive to teach the student punctuality, the time a good handover needs, and the need to be there a little early so that their colleagues can have a full and well deserved break, Amoxicillin For Sale. Students should be taught not only the hard and fast procedures (knowledge) but also how to address and talk to colleagues, adjacent centres, pilots and others. They should not only be taught how to execute a procedure, purchase Amoxicillin for sale, but also that they are part of a safety chain and that there are defensive ways of controlling that will strengthen that chain. They should learn that procedures are there for a reason and that the justifications for bending or omitting them are very rare if not nonexistent....Teaching the culture, improves safety awareness and safety.


And who needs to transmit all these softer elements of behaviour and attitude. Well, the instructor.


The instructor as a role model


As mentioned in the example above, Amoxicillin brand name, a lot of what a new driver has learned is what he or she has observed their parents, senior siblings, or significant others doing. Amoxicillin For Sale, It is like that in all aspects of life; our children do what we as parents, what society at large, what elder siblings, what TV and what cinema do. Amoxicillin treatment, Our culture is taught informally through observation, trial and error. There are some who learn quickly, some who learn even more to the extent of manipulating others or of challenging the status quo, and others still who never learn and end up in trouble.


Now ATC being quite a closed environment, all that parenting, sibling, Amoxicillin forum, cinema and TV, especially in the early (but many times super intensive) days of initial training is condensed in the few instructors who have lived in and are part of the ATC culture that the students can interact with, observe and scrutinise.


So it is very important that we instructors are aware of our role and that while walking on the catwalk we need to act as positively and as naturally as possible.


What follows are a number of areas where we instructors, cheap Amoxicillin, apart from teaching hard and fast procedures, need to be aware of our role in passing on ATC culture in the knowledge that we are ourselves being observed for such behaviour.


Setting limits


It is very important that we instructors set limits to what is and is not allowed in a simulator, both in terms of controlling traffic and in attitude and behaviour off the mike. We also need to be aware that we are under observation as we interact with our colleagues, on how we treat diverging opinions with respect, on how we correct mistakes, where to buy Amoxicillin, on how we follow rules.....


In terms of safety, for example, About Amoxicillin, it is of benefit, as I commented above, to allow the student to try out new things and to push his or her limit, however this should never go to the extent as to the impression that everything could be tried out and that everything is allowed, after all ATC training is not a videogame, kjøpe Amoxicillin på nett, köpa Amoxicillin online, even if it may look like one to someone who knows nothing about its culture and goals. I am a firm believer that safety, and its paramount priority, Amoxicillin pharmacy, that in our job we cannotbring aircraft too close together, shall be transmitted at all times to students.


On the same theme but outside of the immediate operational environment, we as instructors are being observed for our attitude in the simulation room: arriving late, excessive talking or laughing during an exercise should be stopped both for students and for us, Amoxicillin over the counter. ATC culture does not allow that.


Teamwork


Teamwork is another area where the instructor is being observed, Amoxicillin For Sale. In training theory we insist a lot on the necessity of good teamwork, both between controllers in a unit and between all those involved in the chain. Not all students come to training with an innate disposition to working in a team and that a team will help them and will improve safety. Buy Amoxicillin online no prescription, Some have individualistic traits that need to be curbed. In addition to teaching procedures, we should observe and correct students’ attitude towards one another and with other people in the environment such as pilots or assistants. Amoxicillin For Sale, Also, charity begins at home and we are part of that chain and we also work within a team. We should not forget that how we relate professionally with others, such as pseudo pilots or administrative members of the team is being observed by our future controllers, Amoxicillin pictures, who are registering: ¨This is how a real controller behaves¨.


The ¨In the real world we do it differently¨ syndrome


Students look for guidance in instructors on how to apply the procedures there are being taught. Order Amoxicillin from United States pharmacy,


Some instructors feel the need to go further than simply teach procedures and it is of great benefit for a student to work with an instructor who explains the background as to why a procedure exists and to explain the links and rationale between procedures and how we used these with real traffic. I remember to this day an instructor on my initial ATC course who would take time to explain to my colleagues and I how he had used a certain procedure on a given day and why it came in very convenient for him to know it. He was patient and a good story teller. He used to make us feel like we were already working with him in the ops room.


On the other hand, there are only very few things which are worse than an instructor telling a student that ´in the real world´ things are done differently and that a procedure is only being used for ´school purposes´, Amoxicillin For Sale. The contextual difference between the application of a procedure in an academy and in operations is considerable, Amoxicillin used for, but instructors need to understand that a student who has only a few months’ experience in an academy and has not yet worked in operations cannot fully understand this context. Running before learning to walk is as illogical as trying to teach complex operational contexts to students who do not have the experience yet to appreciate them.


Boredom is an Instructor´s worst enemy


Students are still learning things instructors (should) already know. Students are still pushing their traffic threshold; ours should have already been pushed up. Amoxicillin For Sale, Students are seeing an exercise for the first time: for us it is maybe the tenth or twentieth time we are seeing the same exercise. The student is performing; we are observing.


All the elements above mean that our mental activity rate is many times slower than that of the student, Amoxicillin interactions. This is part of training and part of our job. We should never try to make things interesting for our benefit. We should not, Amoxicillin without a prescription, for example, ask the students to try new things that they have not covered. We should not, as mentioned in the part just above, oblige the student to do something in a different way to that which they have been taught already if the main reason for doing this is not for their benefit but for us to moderate our boredom, Amoxicillin For Sale. We need to remember that students have a very limited set of tools in their bag and they are still learning how these tools fit together. Adding more new tools to it will not make them better or quicker, it will just overwhelm them, online buying Amoxicillin. It will give them the impression that you are teaching them a completely different thing to that taught on the course and we risk creating an impression of conflict between our team of instructors. It reflects badly on us as a team and on our message of teamwork.


We should neither fall into the trap of showing disinterest nor fall asleep during an exercise (like one of my instructors used to do sixteen years ago when I was a student - I still remember it!). Amoxicillin For Sale, Before we arrive at that point, it is time to move on in our career and do something else!


In conclusion, in this article I have tried to highlight the fact that ATC culture is something that ATC training professionals should be aware of as something to actively teach because it helps students to make sense of the working world and of its modus operandi. Teaching culture is not achieved mostly through formal training, since knowledge about a culture only goes some way, so the main way is by being immersed in it. Culture is soft and informal. We instructors are the ones who are best placed, in the first days of a controller’s career, to begin developing awareness of this culture. This needs to be done by being clear on the behaviour expected from the students and by being prepared to correct and comment upon this and by being aware that instructors are role models and that our behaviour in the simulation is being scrutinised by our future colleagues, who would like to look a bit like us!


Before I close I would like to make a point on one final cultural trait - Professionalism. ATC is a profession which we should be proud of it, Amoxicillin For Sale. As instructors we are the initiators (I intentionally did not write bouncers!) to the profession for all the students who eventually will become our colleagues. We need to carry the banner of our profession high. We should never talk down our profession, and when we need to criticise things (since the right sort of as criticism is healthy) we should do it constructively and in a way which can be understood by students with only a few months of experience. The analogy might be like talking about feelings to a six year old. We also need to implicitly pass on the message to our students that they made the right choice, that they are in a great professional environment and that it is good to be in ATC. The best way we can communicate this is with the message which is written all over our body.

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Flagyl For Sale, A new edition of my favourite ATC related magazine: Hindsight from Eurocontrol, is out now.


This edition focuses on fatigue in air traffic control, canada, mexico, india. After Flagyl, The articles presented range from how fatigue can affect performance to practical hints on how to use caffeine (and how not to abuse it!) to combat fatigue.

The magazine blends the theoretical with the practical in a perfect way, Flagyl dosage. Where can i order Flagyl without prescription, It is an easy but useful read in these hot (in some places at least) summer months, not to just read at work, Flagyl brand name, Where can i buy cheapest Flagyl online, but also to take to the beach or home and read before a sweet summer siesta ;)

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Reglan For Sale, I have just read an Article on Skybrary on the uncontained engine failure that suffered the Qantas A-380-800 a month and two days ago.

The article is quite detailed, online Reglan without a prescription. After Reglan, It is the first time that I easily find such detailed information on an incident in such a short span of time.  Keep it up Skybrary.

Amongst others, buying Reglan online over the counter, Reglan wiki, it describes how the crew had to respond to the engine failure as well as a high number of messages of secondary failures. Quoting the article some of these messages were:


  • Engines 1 and 4 operating in degraded mode (some air data or engine parameters are not available)

  • GREEN hydraulic system (powered by engines 1 & 2) - low system pressure and low fluid level

  • YELLOW hydraulic system (powered by engines 3 & 4) - engine 4 pump errors

  • Failure of AC bus 1 and AC Bus 2

  • Flight controls operating in alternate law (some flight control protections reduced)

  • Wing slats inoperative

  • Reduced aileron control

  • Reduced spoiler control

  • Landing gear control and indicator warnings

  • Multiple brake system messages

  • Engine anti-ice and air data sensor messages

  • Multiple fuel system messages, Reglan interactions, Low dose Reglan, including a fuel jettison fault (the latter fault precluded the jettison of fuel which would normally be made when a long haul air turn back is made to avoid a significantly overweight landing)

  • Centre of gravity messages

  • ...


To note that the flight crew for this flight was composed of 5 persons:

• the aircraft Captain, as pilot in command (PIC)
• the First Officer (FO), Reglan pharmacy, Reglan no prescription, acting as copilot
• a Second Officer (SO)
• a second Captain, who was undergoing training as a Check Captain (CC)
• a Supervising Check Captain (SCC), online buy Reglan without a prescription, Purchase Reglan for sale, who was overseeing the training of the CC.

What will also be interesting but which does not come clear from the preliminary report is the extent of the contribution of a 5 person flight crew had over the positive resolution of the incident [i.e, Reglan For Sale. successful landing and evacuation, Reglan pics, Reglan blogs, 0 injuries]. Were 5 better than 2, about Reglan. Reglan no rx, To what extent. how, Reglan recreational. Reglan For Sale, Or were they of hindrance?  How did they distribute the roles. Reglan natural, Etc. Would a 2 person flight crew have sufficed, buy generic Reglan. Is Reglan addictive, I guess these human factors considerations will be delved into during the full report...

The article contains the safety recommendation, no prescription Reglan online, Reglan dangers, a couple of pictures  of the damaged engine as well as a link to the preliminary report which was issued on 3/12/10 [more pics in the preliminary report]

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Seroquel For Sale, I have recently read with interest a White Paper written by Eurocontrol and the U.S. FAA, Seroquel forum, Buy generic Seroquel, with the participation of a number of European ANSPs on Human performance in ATM safety.

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  • Looking at priority human performance issues for future ATM


In a nutshell, the white paper argues that “no matter how advanced … ATM systems become, is Seroquel safe, Ordering Seroquel online, humans will be on centre stage as the decision makers…” and that it is therefore important to understand human performance, to invest in it and to manage it well, doses Seroquel work. Effects of Seroquel, It also explains how a human factors case is an integral part of a systems safety case. “An HF-informed safety case is a richer and more realistic evaluation of safety risk, generic Seroquel, Seroquel alternatives, with the human contribution … fully represented. This enables decision-makers to make sound decisions”

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Prednisolone For Sale, As you can see from my previous posts, I recently got interested in the definitions of terms in ATM. I then started my own list with references on this blog, Prednisolone class. Prednisolone pharmacy, Coincidentally Eurocontrol has just released its ATM lexicon, which is a wiki-based database containing definitions of ATM terms, buy cheap Prednisolone. Order Prednisolone no prescription,


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Celebrex For Sale, Over the recent couple of years, I started observing a certain reduction in the movement towards harmonisation and coordination at European level in our business. Where can i find Celebrex online, The rationale, as I understand it, after Celebrex, Celebrex treatment, is as follows:


  • Coordination and harmonisation as we knew it, i.e, Celebrex street price. What is Celebrex, through a neutral European agency - Eurocontrol, is too slow.

  • Coordination and harmonisation as we knew it was not cost efficient - we have to pay a budget to maintain the agency, buy Celebrex online cod, Celebrex wiki, moreover the agency is taking work that could be done by our privatised / corporatised service providers and the cherry on the cake: it requires our 'free' input through consultation groups, reviews etc.

  • If there would be a need of coordination and harmonisation, Celebrex australia, uk, us, usa, Kjøpe Celebrex på nett, köpa Celebrex online, European legislators could decree, issue standards or rules and oversee that the free market adapts to fulfill the requirements, Celebrex long term. Buying Celebrex online over the counter, The legislator would then simply need a system [through another rule] to ensure the oversight.

  • Since Europe is creating functional airspace blocks [FABs], a good deed of coordination and harmonisation will be done internally within the new structure, no prescription Celebrex online. Order Celebrex no prescription, What remains will be dealt with through rule making and the market.


So European ATM actors, partly due to this rationale, Celebrex duration, Comprar en línea Celebrex, comprar Celebrex baratos, reduced the commitment towards harmonisation and coordination at European level. In many areas, the effort by the ANSPs are going into the constitution of the FABs and to create coordination and harmonisation substructures within each FAB, Celebrex For Sale. We have CNS coordination, purchase Celebrex for sale, Celebrex dosage, operational concept and implementation, human resources, Celebrex photos, Celebrex price, coupon, safety management, and another number of coordination and harmonisation initiatives within each FAB in the becoming, Celebrex used for. Purchase Celebrex online no prescription, The same people and companies say they had [have] no effort left for European wide coordination and harmonisation.

European ATM created a new layer of coordination, Celebrex gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Discount Celebrex, I think this is a good thing as the level of complexity of the system requires it. Celebrex For Sale, However, European ATM should not believe that this new layer replaces the old one: There will still be 9 FABs [once, inshalla, they come to be] and European coordination will still be needed.

Thus the creation of the Network Manager, Celebrex recreational. Celebrex natural, In my eyes it is the answer to the need of coordination at European level for network capacity, efficiency, Celebrex results, Order Celebrex from mexican pharmacy, and environment. It is the hub for inter FAB, where can i buy cheapest Celebrex online, Celebrex without prescription, inter  airport and airport-FAB coordination, for coordinating the resolutions to crises that affect the whole network and for coordinating deployment of technology that becomes available through research and development that will be necessary to improve the service levels of the network, Celebrex price. Celebrex steet value, It will harmonise processes and procedures where coordination is necessary.

However, it is still not seeing the importance of coordinating human performance aspects that would affect the network performance, Celebrex For Sale. I think that in 2010 and also in 2020 and beyond, Celebrex without a prescription, Online Celebrex without a prescription, the human will remain the corner stone of the ATM system. Coordinating training processes and initiatives, Celebrex no rx, Online buying Celebrex hcl, for example,  especially in these times of change, where can i order Celebrex without prescription, Celebrex from canada, is not only a necessity but would also make business sense as each FAB is undergoing similar changes. This however is not the case in the current way of thinking, Celebrex forum. Buy Celebrex online no prescription, Training and other human performance aspects are still seen as at the periphery and with marginal added-benefit if coordinated at a European scale. Celebrex For Sale, So in the mean time, each FAB is recreating the harmonisation and coordination processes that used to [and should continue to] exist at European level.

Although not going as far as in the case of human performance, get Celebrex, I feel that safety, is following a similar path. After the efforts following the Uberlingen accident, we are back to believing that what is needed centrally is to oversee and regulate the  management and performance of each of the entities, and to continue, at somewhat a lower profile to coordinate safety initiatives and sharing of information. More could be done.

So to conclude, I think that coordination at European level is necessary. The fact that instead of 36 entities, only 9 will exist [when they will exist] just changes the number but not the requirement, Celebrex For Sale. Intra FAB coordination is an extra and necessery layer of coordination and harmonisation but does not substitute inter-FAB coordination. The Network Management is an answer to this new face of coordination and harmonisation and this is a very positive step at improving the network performance. However the Network manager and European decision makers in the field are still not seeing human performance as part of its scope. This is in my opinion a need as human performance a major contributor to network performance and also because intra-FAB initititives are simply recreating 9 ways of doing things in the field, which is an inefficient way of doing business.

I hope that human performance is included in the scope of the Network Manager in its role of coordinating and harmonising all the components that contribute to the network's performance sooner rather than later
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