Turkey plans to build 6 runway airport at Istanbul

 I am just republishing news that circulated just over a week ago about the announcement by Turkey that it plans to build one of the biggest airports worldwide at Istanbul. Tenders will be out in May 2013 with start of operations planned for 2017. No other European airport would come close to this. What a missed opportunity not to have Turkey as part of the EU. Here is a link to the news. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e726f572-6577-11e2-a3db-00144feab49a.html#axzz2JwD7VYfC

Do you have the potential to become and air traffic controller? – Test your ATC skills 2

2 years and a half ago I wrote a post on games developed by the German DFS to introduce potential candidate student controllers to the skills necessary to carry out the functions of an air traffic control. You can refer to that post by clicking here.

I have recently discovered a similar pack of games produced by the British NATS designed so that potential candidates could self test (and have some fun, I hope) whether they have the skills NATS will be looking for should they apply for pre selection on an initial course.

The idea is similar to the one presented by the DFS, the skill-set sought overlaps to the German one but in some aspects it is also complimentary.

The NATS pack looks at the ability of:

  • Tracking elements on a screen
  • Memory
  • Spacial Awareness
  • The ability to Sequence and to Separate elements in motion over a 2 dimensional plane

They are good fun and for free, you should try them if you are an aspirant candidate, if you´re looking for a little challenge, or, if you are a controller, to finally see whether you have what it takes! ;)

Here it the link. Well done NATS!

On the use of simulators during unit training (4 and a 1/2 years later)

Four and a half years ago, I had written an article on this blog about the use of simulators during pre-ojt. Recently, I started pondering again about this, and, having forgotten that I had written that article, I now see that on the fundamentals my opinion has not changed, however it has evolved in a substantial manner.

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="351" caption="Tower Simulator Picture embedded from: http://www.airport-technology.com/"][/caption] To put it in a nutshell, I still believe that there is a clear benefit of using (hi fidelity) simulators during unit training, but whereas then I linked the use to solely pre-OJT, that is preparation for the on the job training, I now see that simulators have the potential to add value in terms of better and more efficient training, not only before OJT but also during this final phase of unit training. I will explain more a bit later but before I just want to note that I have the impression that since I wrote the first article back in 2007, not only the use of simulators in unit training has not increased, but the very term of pre-ojt (and therefore the only link that has existed so far between unit training and simulators) has been disappearing from the radar screen.  A proof of this is that neither the EC directive 2006/23/EC nor the more recent EU regulation 805/11 mention pre-ojt or the use of simulators in unit training any more, whereas Eurocontrol's licensing manual used to. I find this a real pity, especially because with time passing and with technology and automation supposedly (and in many ways is) becoming more accessible, in terms of training we seem to be going in the opposite direction. Unit training. The EU regulation defines unit training as the phase composed of transitional training preparing the student for on the job training and the on the job training itself.  It could almost call unit training `On the job training and anything needed to prepare you for it` Unit training, in my opinion should be better defined as phase of training before the validation of a ratings and rating endorsements and or new unit endorsements which consists of:
  • Learning and practicing local procedures and interaction with the system* in use at the unit
  • Consolidation and more practice time of the skills acquired during the initial phase of training
* by system I mean to refer to procedures, technology and other humans involved Unit training should consist of a number of performance objectives that the student or trainee controller (who I'll call the candidate) need to demonstrate aptitude in before getting the appropriate endorsements on their ATC licence. Based on these performance objectives, the unit training should list training objectives of how the candidate will achieve the performance required. These objectives will be a mixture of time based (e.g. needs a minimum of 100 hours on the position) to practice based (e.g. needs to practice heavy traffic - at 90%-100% of the sector threshold, or needs to practice holdings).  Mostly they should be a mix of both practice and time, that is, it is not enough to say that unit training should last 100 hours, but that the plan should be broken-down into specific items that should be qualified and quantified. For example, the candidate needs to experience a minimum of 10 hours of weekend configuration in busy traffic (needs to be quantified too), or a minimum of 10 hours of busy traffic in thunderstorm conditions. To be honest I am not sure to what extent the above is done. I have the impression (hopefully I am wrong) that whereas some do their plan in this way, others simply limit their work to defining a minimum number of hours at the end of which the candidate is safely handling traffic. The use of simulators in all this. Pre-OJT and In-OJT Let us start by saying that Unit training is very expensive. The longer the candidate spends training and the more expensive it becomes. Let us continue by saying that at the end of unit training the candidate needs to handle safely and on their own licence traffic at the unit, meaning that the preparation needs to be well made and no corners should be cut. Having said this, before we also used to say that simulators could be used in the case of busy units, so that the candidate is prepared to the heavy traffic in the simulator. A sort of bridge the gap between the initial training traffic and complexity levels and real life. Indeed, simulators can be used in this manner during pre-OJT. But what about less busy environments?  And, is the use of simulators during unit training only limited to pre-OJT? In my opinion we should stop seeing a strictly linear start-finish-start relationship between transitional (theoretical) pre-OJT (simulator) and OJT phases of training and see more unit training as a phase where theory, simulation and life traffic are trained on as needed. (Of course it is understandable that it is logical that one starts with theory and is also assumed that the end objective is to work on live traffic, so the emphasis is on the job) Trained as needed means that nothing should prevent a unit training plan to have parts of on the job training followed by theory and or simulation in any sequence. Nothing prevents, for example, that the candidate is asked to study unit specificity of unusual and emergency procedures at a later stage, after having already started on the job. In the particular case of simulations, my idea is that this should not be limited to pre-OJT and to busy units, but should be used as pre and in-OJT in busy and non busy environments. In busy environments, surely for the reason stated above describing pre-OJT and in both busy and non busy environments because life traffic situations cannot be managed to always efficiently fulfil training objectives. In non busy environments some relatively complex situations which do not happen often which may take months to appear in real life, and may even appear when the candidate is off duty.  In busy environments, the high and complex traffic levels are not a guarantee that the mix of situations cover all the objectives described in the unit training plan will occur. For example, heavy summer traffic in an airport, whilst the candidate is training, does not mean that the candidate will experience the low visibility or snow conditions typical of late autumn and winter. So what would be the option if the candidate started training at the tower in March: wait until January of the following year so that they experience snow? Get them ready for check-out anyhow in September once they accomplish their training hours? or during the OJT phase take them off real life for a week, put them in a hi fidelity simulator, provide them with a true replica of the tower, in winter conditions and with  a traffic sample of a number of complex days recorded in previous seasons?  In the name of safety (to cover all objectives) and efficiency (not to let a resource wait to be used operationally for 6 months) I would use In-OJT simulator if it were available. And we have not covered the use of simulators to train candidates specifically to unusual and emergency procedures applied to their unit, where for me it is evident that a replica simulator SHOULD be used. Conclusion In my opinion many of us in unit training are missing the opportunity of making things more efficient and possibly increasing safety by further using simulators. With every year that passes, simulators gain in performance and lose in cost, yet we are not using them more. On top of this, regulation, at least in Europe, is not helping us as not only is not maturing their possible use, but has in the past 5 years even reduced their visibility within the documents available. We should use simulators well, to the benefit of safety and efficiency. Mainly, we should simulators more.

Amoxicillin For Sale

Amoxicillin For Sale, In this article I will look at learning the ATC culture during initial training and the corresponding role of the instructor. But before I begin, a short preface:

Of knowledge and culture.

We could say that to be successful in a particular field one would need a combination of ingredients, rather like a good balanced recipe. These ingredients are:

  •  knowledge of what needs to be done, Amoxicillin dosage,

  • knowledge and application of how to behave in the environment and

  • good doses of luck, Buy Amoxicillin online cod, audacity and timing.

 (this article appeared in the latest issue of the Hindisght magazine)

It would be very interesting to have a look at how luck, audacity and timing play their role in successful ATC, but that would need a separate article with a focus on ¨The other factors¨ (maybe in a future edition of Hindsight?). In this one I will focus on the first two points on the list which, no prescription Amoxicillin online, for the sake of brevity, we could call:

  • Knowledge the one I referred to as ‘knowledge of what needs to be done’ and

  • Culture (short for: ¨understanding and thriving in the culture¨) the I referred to as ‘knowledge and application of how to behave….’

Whereas knowledge could be considered as a ´hard´ component - you know it and apply it or you don´t, culture is softer, Amoxicillin results, and the subtleties of behaviour are harder to teach and/or learn.

 Of learning:

In any learning activity there is both formal and informal learning. Amoxicillin natural, We could say that formal learning is what is contained in a training syllabus and therefore what will be formally taught in a training establishment. Informal learning, on the other hand, is what a person learns that will help them in the tasks they are to carry out, but which is not itself part of the syllabus.

To illustrate the four items above, if we consider a student learning how to drive, then:

  • Knowledge is what the student knows in terms of traffic signs, right of way and of handling of the car.

  • Culture is how to stay calm (or lose it), how to behave in traffic jams or in busy parking lots, when to use or not the horn, etc.

  • Formal learning would be what the student learns on the books and during the practice hours with their instructor.

  • Informal learning would be what they learn (or shouldn´t learn) by observing their father drive through the years.

ATC training

If we apply all the above to initial ATC training, we see that in terms of formal training, we have many hard objectives focusing on the knowledge component – e.g, Amoxicillin For Sale. all the basic subjects like Navigation, Meteorology, ATM, .., Amoxicillin australia, uk, us, usa. (with the exclusion of Human Factors) and all the procedures in the Rating part including most of the practice in the simulator. At the end of this, the student who passes will ¨know what needs to be done¨, Amoxicillin online cod, will obtain a student licence and will be eligible to start unit training.

Formal learning in terms of culture is mainly covered in the Human Factors modules and in others dealing with the professional environment. These modules teach how to ¨behave in the environment¨ and include some application through role play and familiarisation visits.

Amoxicillin For Sale, This is already a very good start, however since the ATC culture is very rich, in my opinion one can do more – and in many schools actually more is done. In the definition of ATC culture, I would include amongst other aspects how to behave in an operations room, where can i buy cheapest Amoxicillin online, how to work in a team, safety culture*, and the concept of service in terms of efficiency and order.

In terms of a training organisation, it is never too early to introduce as much ATC culture to students as possible. It is true that initial training is detached from the operations room and that there are still training phases later on, such as the on the job training, low dose Amoxicillin, when the student will have the opportunity to learn culture. However from experience, on the one hand students are eager for information on how it will feel to work as a controller and are sponges for behaviours and attitudes (good and bad ones) in the ATC world and on the other hand having the students already assimilating part of the culture as early as possible is of great benefit for their understanding of what the ATC world is about.

Culture can be transmitted during training in a number of ways, a couple of which are:

  • imitating the real environment whenever it benefits training and

  • raising awareness amongst the instructional team, especially the simulator instructors, Amoxicillin images, about their function as role models for the profession.

In the rest of this article I will develop on these two aspects which in the end are intrinsically linked with one another.

Imitating the environment

When imitating the life environment during training, it is important to keep the balance between two things:

On the one hand that students are still learning and therefore that it is normal to do, and learn from, after Amoxicillin, mistakes, and

On the other hand that even though they are working in a simulated environment, Amoxicillin dose, there is a certain degree of seriousness and responsibility and that everyone needs to do their best to ensure safe services.

 * how a controller behaves professionally to ensure that while he or she is working, safety is facilitated at all times and that the system within which he or she works maintains an adequate level of safety or improves it), Amoxicillin from canada,

On other aspects, the same should apply: If it is forbidden to use mobile or smart phones in an operational room, Order Amoxicillin online overnight delivery no prescription, the same should be applied in a simulator. If it is a good practice to be at least five minutes early for a hand over in the operational world, then it is also positive to teach the student punctuality, the time a good handover needs, and the need to be there a little early so that their colleagues can have a full and well deserved break, Amoxicillin For Sale. Students should be taught not only the hard and fast procedures (knowledge) but also how to address and talk to colleagues, adjacent centres, pilots and others. They should not only be taught how to execute a procedure, purchase Amoxicillin for sale, but also that they are part of a safety chain and that there are defensive ways of controlling that will strengthen that chain. They should learn that procedures are there for a reason and that the justifications for bending or omitting them are very rare if not nonexistent....Teaching the culture, improves safety awareness and safety.

And who needs to transmit all these softer elements of behaviour and attitude. Well, the instructor.

The instructor as a role model

As mentioned in the example above, Amoxicillin brand name, a lot of what a new driver has learned is what he or she has observed their parents, senior siblings, or significant others doing. Amoxicillin For Sale, It is like that in all aspects of life; our children do what we as parents, what society at large, what elder siblings, what TV and what cinema do. Amoxicillin treatment, Our culture is taught informally through observation, trial and error. There are some who learn quickly, some who learn even more to the extent of manipulating others or of challenging the status quo, and others still who never learn and end up in trouble.

Now ATC being quite a closed environment, all that parenting, sibling, Amoxicillin forum, cinema and TV, especially in the early (but many times super intensive) days of initial training is condensed in the few instructors who have lived in and are part of the ATC culture that the students can interact with, observe and scrutinise.

So it is very important that we instructors are aware of our role and that while walking on the catwalk we need to act as positively and as naturally as possible.

What follows are a number of areas where we instructors, cheap Amoxicillin, apart from teaching hard and fast procedures, need to be aware of our role in passing on ATC culture in the knowledge that we are ourselves being observed for such behaviour.

Setting limits

It is very important that we instructors set limits to what is and is not allowed in a simulator, both in terms of controlling traffic and in attitude and behaviour off the mike. We also need to be aware that we are under observation as we interact with our colleagues, on how we treat diverging opinions with respect, on how we correct mistakes, where to buy Amoxicillin, on how we follow rules.....

In terms of safety, for example, About Amoxicillin, it is of benefit, as I commented above, to allow the student to try out new things and to push his or her limit, however this should never go to the extent as to the impression that everything could be tried out and that everything is allowed, after all ATC training is not a videogame, kjøpe Amoxicillin på nett, köpa Amoxicillin online, even if it may look like one to someone who knows nothing about its culture and goals. I am a firm believer that safety, and its paramount priority, Amoxicillin pharmacy, that in our job we cannotbring aircraft too close together, shall be transmitted at all times to students.

On the same theme but outside of the immediate operational environment, we as instructors are being observed for our attitude in the simulation room: arriving late, excessive talking or laughing during an exercise should be stopped both for students and for us, Amoxicillin over the counter. ATC culture does not allow that.


Teamwork is another area where the instructor is being observed, Amoxicillin For Sale. In training theory we insist a lot on the necessity of good teamwork, both between controllers in a unit and between all those involved in the chain. Not all students come to training with an innate disposition to working in a team and that a team will help them and will improve safety. Buy Amoxicillin online no prescription, Some have individualistic traits that need to be curbed. In addition to teaching procedures, we should observe and correct students’ attitude towards one another and with other people in the environment such as pilots or assistants. Amoxicillin For Sale, Also, charity begins at home and we are part of that chain and we also work within a team. We should not forget that how we relate professionally with others, such as pseudo pilots or administrative members of the team is being observed by our future controllers, Amoxicillin pictures, who are registering: ¨This is how a real controller behaves¨.

The ¨In the real world we do it differently¨ syndrome

Students look for guidance in instructors on how to apply the procedures there are being taught. Order Amoxicillin from United States pharmacy,

Some instructors feel the need to go further than simply teach procedures and it is of great benefit for a student to work with an instructor who explains the background as to why a procedure exists and to explain the links and rationale between procedures and how we used these with real traffic. I remember to this day an instructor on my initial ATC course who would take time to explain to my colleagues and I how he had used a certain procedure on a given day and why it came in very convenient for him to know it. He was patient and a good story teller. He used to make us feel like we were already working with him in the ops room.

On the other hand, there are only very few things which are worse than an instructor telling a student that ´in the real world´ things are done differently and that a procedure is only being used for ´school purposes´, Amoxicillin For Sale. The contextual difference between the application of a procedure in an academy and in operations is considerable, Amoxicillin used for, but instructors need to understand that a student who has only a few months’ experience in an academy and has not yet worked in operations cannot fully understand this context. Running before learning to walk is as illogical as trying to teach complex operational contexts to students who do not have the experience yet to appreciate them.

Boredom is an Instructor´s worst enemy

Students are still learning things instructors (should) already know. Students are still pushing their traffic threshold; ours should have already been pushed up. Amoxicillin For Sale, Students are seeing an exercise for the first time: for us it is maybe the tenth or twentieth time we are seeing the same exercise. The student is performing; we are observing.

All the elements above mean that our mental activity rate is many times slower than that of the student, Amoxicillin interactions. This is part of training and part of our job. We should never try to make things interesting for our benefit. We should not, Amoxicillin without a prescription, for example, ask the students to try new things that they have not covered. We should not, as mentioned in the part just above, oblige the student to do something in a different way to that which they have been taught already if the main reason for doing this is not for their benefit but for us to moderate our boredom, Amoxicillin For Sale. We need to remember that students have a very limited set of tools in their bag and they are still learning how these tools fit together. Adding more new tools to it will not make them better or quicker, it will just overwhelm them, online buying Amoxicillin. It will give them the impression that you are teaching them a completely different thing to that taught on the course and we risk creating an impression of conflict between our team of instructors. It reflects badly on us as a team and on our message of teamwork.

We should neither fall into the trap of showing disinterest nor fall asleep during an exercise (like one of my instructors used to do sixteen years ago when I was a student - I still remember it!). Amoxicillin For Sale, Before we arrive at that point, it is time to move on in our career and do something else!

In conclusion, in this article I have tried to highlight the fact that ATC culture is something that ATC training professionals should be aware of as something to actively teach because it helps students to make sense of the working world and of its modus operandi. Teaching culture is not achieved mostly through formal training, since knowledge about a culture only goes some way, so the main way is by being immersed in it. Culture is soft and informal. We instructors are the ones who are best placed, in the first days of a controller’s career, to begin developing awareness of this culture. This needs to be done by being clear on the behaviour expected from the students and by being prepared to correct and comment upon this and by being aware that instructors are role models and that our behaviour in the simulation is being scrutinised by our future colleagues, who would like to look a bit like us!

Before I close I would like to make a point on one final cultural trait - Professionalism. ATC is a profession which we should be proud of it, Amoxicillin For Sale. As instructors we are the initiators (I intentionally did not write bouncers!) to the profession for all the students who eventually will become our colleagues. We need to carry the banner of our profession high. We should never talk down our profession, and when we need to criticise things (since the right sort of as criticism is healthy) we should do it constructively and in a way which can be understood by students with only a few months of experience. The analogy might be like talking about feelings to a six year old. We also need to implicitly pass on the message to our students that they made the right choice, that they are in a great professional environment and that it is good to be in ATC. The best way we can communicate this is with the message which is written all over our body.


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Buy Zithromax Without Prescription

Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, This is the second part of my review of the EU regulation on ATCO licensing. In this part I will focus on areas of improvement that still need to be made to this regulation.
To read the first part of this post, my Zithromax experience, click here.

In terms of areas for improvement, Buy generic Zithromax, there are a few about which I would like to comment:

As a premise, I would like to start with reproducing the first part of article 2 of the regulation which says that the regulation lays down detailed rules for the issuing, suspension and revocation of air traffic control and student air traffic control licences and of associated ratings, buy Zithromax from mexico, endorsements, Zithromax for sale, medical certificates and of certification of training organisations and the conditions of their validity, renewal, re-validation and use, Zithromax from canadian pharmacy.

1 On the use of instructors in transitional training as part of unit training:

If we take 2 definitions from article 3 of the regulation:

Definition 12b states that unit training " including transitional training prior to on- the-job training and on-the-job training, Herbal Zithromax, leading to the grant of an air traffic controller licence"

then, definition 9:

‘instructor endorsement’ means the authorisation entered on and forming part of a licence, indicating the competence of the holder to give on-the-job training instruction;

We can easily interpret that one does not necessarily be an OJT instructor to instruct in during transitional training, Zithromax blogs, because unit training is divided into 2 parts and the instructor endorsement is only valid for the second part. Zithromax photos, However this interpretation is somewhat blurred if one refers to definition 15 of the same article 3 which say that:

‘Unit Training Plan’ means an approved plan detailing the processes and timing required to allow the unit procedures to be applied to the local area under the supervision of an on-the-job-training instructor.

Combining the three above I think that the regulation is either saying that:

The unit training plan is a plan only for the OJT part of unit training - as it needs to be done under the supervision of the OJTI and according to definition 9 only OJT needs to be done under the supervision of an OJTI


That all unit training needs to be done under the supervision of an OJTI, meaning that definition 9 is incomplete as the endorsement should also be valid for transitional training as defined in definition 12b, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.

This unfortunately raises a big space for interpretation between different regulators across Europe, making things unequal depending on which state you are in, discount Zithromax. My opinion on the subject is that you do not need to be an active OJTI to give transitional training, Zithromax alternatives, i.e. you do not need at that given point in time to hold a valid unit endorsement on the unit you are instructing. However, australia, uk, us, usa, a minimum level of qualification on the unit endorsement that will be instructed is necessary; for example 'having held a valid unit endorsement in the 3 years preceding the provision of training' or 'has showed through previous training, Zithromax street price, up to date knowledge of the unit which will be instructed... Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, 2. Who can issue new rating endorsements

A second unclear area still remaining is the process to be followed to issue new rating endorsements and which certified training provider (initial or unit or both) who would be responsible for the training towards this.  Article 8 states that holders of a student ATC licence shall be authorised to provide ATC services in accordance with the rating and rating endorsements contained in the licence. This implies that an initial ATC training provider has to give training towards at least one rating endorsement, Zithromax mg. But what about the case of a student ATCO or a qualified ATCO who wishes to obtain another rating endorsement; which entity would be capacitated to train him. Purchase Zithromax online no prescription, 3. Could one end up with 2 licences simultaneously: an ATCO and a student ATCO at a given point in time, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.

To follow on the above, the regulation does not cater, what is Zithromax, in my opinion, Is Zithromax safe, for conversion training, that is training for a qualified controller to qualify in another rating, for example a tower controller converting in approach or area control, order Zithromax online c.o.d. The regulation does not cater of how a new rating is issued and the only path described in this regulation to get another rating is to follow initial training (it is neither clear that part of the initial training could be validated as being covered in the original initial training the ATCO received). Zithromax samples, If we follow this line of thought, then there is no procedure described of how the new rating will be inscribed on a licence. Since no procedure for conversion training exists in the regulation and since the only way described to issue a new rating is via initial training, comprar en línea Zithromax, comprar Zithromax baratos, then I deduce that a qualified ATCO who obtains a new rating needs to be issued with a new Student Licence.  Note that this is not clear, Purchase Zithromax, and I am only arriving to this through deduction and that therefore I presume that this would be open to different interpretation in different countries. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, If my scenario is correct, then a current controller will see herself issued with a student ATC licence whilst already holding a valid ATC licence. If this is the case, then, Zithromax overnight, one person could end up holding more than one ATC licence (example in the case of exchanging the newly student licence received in a second EU country, Buy no prescription Zithromax online, going through unit training and receiving an ATC licence, whilst retaining the original ATC licence with the first rating the controller had obtained before).

I do not wish to say that the above will take place easily, Zithromax description, but that the procedure is unclear and leaves a blank when it comes to the procedure of adding ratings to a controller's licence. Zithromax from mexico, 4. Language endorsement

The first paragraph of article 13 states:

Air traffic controllers and student air traffic controllers shall not exercise the privileges of their licence unless they have an English language endorsement.

Does this mean that a student ATC licence could be issued without the person having a minimum English proficiency of level 4 but that the person cannot work (exercise the privilege of) on her licence, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Or does it mean that before the licence is issued the candidate needs to have a minimum level 4 in English, Zithromax no prescription.

Article 8 paragraph 3 states

The student air traffic controller licence shall contain the language endorsement(s) and at least one rating and if applicable, Buy Zithromax from canada, one rating endorsement.

So from the two above I interpret that a student shall have at least one language endorsement which does not need to be English to be issued with a student ATC licence but that to do OJT (to exercise the privileges) the student needs the English language endorsement.

Again subject to interpretation and potential  difference in application in different Member States, Zithromax canada, mexico, india. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, 5. Instructor endorsement

Article 14 part 2b says that:

Applicants for the issue of an instructor endorsement shall:
(b) have exercised the privileges of an air traffic controller licence for an immediately preceding period of at least one year, Online buy Zithromax without a prescription, or such longer duration as is fixed by the competent authority having regard to the ratings and endorsements for which instruction is given

I have two problems understanding this:

1: What does a: "an immediately preceding period of at least one year" mean. Does it mean that the licence or rating or endorsement was valid during the 12 months preceding the issuing of the OJTI endorsement. or is there a minimum period in the year preceding (e.g, order Zithromax from mexican pharmacy. 3 months work minimum or a minimum number of hours accomplished within the year) or does it have to be a full year.

I say that this is yet another area which will be subject to interpretation and therefore differently applied in different states, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Zithromax dangers, 2: What does it mean: "or such longer duration as is fixed by the competent authority having regard to the ratings and endorsements for which instruction is given". does this mean that the longer duration depends on the rating and endorsement. And what endorsements are we talking about, Zithromax duration. Rating. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Unit. Buy Zithromax without a prescription, Both.

Does this mean that controller A working in Tower 1 with an average of 10 movements a day and who has worked for a minimum amount of hours on the unit endorsement in the TWR enough to keep it valid during the preceding 12 months, then do unit training in TWR 2, Zithromax price, which is a country's major airport and international hub, Fast shipping Zithromax, and on the same day she checks out on one sector she can on the same day start instructing others on the job. Does this regulation not recommend a minimum period of time or working hours in the unit for which training is to be provided before the instructor endorsement can be used at to give training at this particular unit.
This area is the least clear in the regulation, Zithromax schedule.

To continue with the instructor endorsement, part 3 of article 11 says that the instructor endorsement shall be valid for a renewable period of three years, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. But it does not say what the criteria for renewal should be. Buy cheap Zithromax no rx, If there are no criteria (such as refresher training for example or an assessment of performance as OJTI) then why would renewal of such an endorsement be necessary.

6. Mistake, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews.

There is a mistake which creep ed in in the regulatory text (at least the English version) of the official journal publication - Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, 11.8.2001. official journal of the EU 206/31): Part 2 of Article 27 talks of a Chapter IV. Zithromax price, coupon, Chapter IV does not exist in the regulation. I assume that the regulation should refer to Annex 2.
It is quite a serious mistake, real brand Zithromax online, I find, Zithromax recreational, that an official and binding regulation, refers to something that does not exist.

7, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Mutual recognition of licences.

ATC licences, student licences, associated ratings and language endorsements are mutually recognised. Instructor endorsement is not. Why. Is this because one would need a unit endorsement on which to exercise the privileges Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, of the OJTI endorsement. and if yes, once the condition is met, could not the other parts of article 14 (i.e. to have completed an approved instructors'  training) be mutually recognised.

In conclusion:

A new regulation which is directly applicable in all EU member states has entered into force last September 2011. This is another step towards harmonisation of the ATC licencing, training and certification process and an improvement over the previous directive where each member state had the 'freedom' of transposing the rules in a different manner.l

The new text (except of the fact of being regulation of course) does not bring a revolution in the system, even though a number of improvements have been introduced such as the mutual recognition of student licences and the need of English language endorsement. It also brings in many areas clearer structure in the articles.

It unfortunately also leaves a number of areas unclear and which will still give rise to different interpretations across the EU, such as the case of the instructor endorsement, who can instruct during the transitional sub-phase of unit training, and other items as have been mentioned in this post.

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I have recently read and compared the new European Regulation number 805/2011 Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, laying down detailed rules for ATC licenses and certain certificates pursuant to the EC regulation number 216/2008 with the previous EC directive 2006/23/EC on a community air traffic controller license. Retin-A coupon, Here is what I found:

The first difference, of course, buy Retin-A online no prescription, Retin-A from canadian pharmacy, is that while the new set of rules are considered 'Regulation' which is `binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States` the former document was a directive, meaning that Member States were obliged to bring into force the laws, comprar en línea Retin-A, comprar Retin-A baratos, Online buying Retin-A, regulations and provisions to comply with the directive. The first is directly applicable as is, order Retin-A online c.o.d, Retin-A reviews, the second was applicable indirectly through transposition into local law. An EU regulation normally has a higher harmonising effect across the Union than a directive would.

This article is divided into 2 post, Retin-A dose, Retin-A maximum dosage, the first part will focus on a comparison between this regulation and the EU directive, the second, Retin-A forum, Retin-A images, which will be published in the 1st week of 2012 will focus more on the areas of improvements that I see needed to this new regulation.


First and foremost, in essence the regulation is an evolution of the principles laid down in the directive, Retin-A dosage. Purchase Retin-A online, The regulation in my opinion does not constitute a revolution. I feel that the writers of the regulation have attempted to improve the coherence and clarity of the rules described and to add information where it was missing, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription.

The first addition worth noting is the initial consideration point 7 where the regulation mandates EASA to develop certification specifications, Retin-A price, coupon, Retin-A brand name, accepted means of compliance and guidance material to facilitate the necessary regulatory uniformity.  EASA was not mentioned in the 2006 directive, mainly because it had not yet endorsed ATM regulation within its scope back then, Retin-A for sale. Kjøpe Retin-A på nett, köpa Retin-A online, Also, in relation to EASA, taking Retin-A, About Retin-A, in article 4c, it has been attributed the competence over the certification of any organisation that has its principle place of operation outside the territory of the EU, australia, uk, us, usa. Where can i order Retin-A without prescription, In this sense EASA is not anymore only a supervisor (or regulator) of regulators, but will also need to apply regulation itself, cheap Retin-A no rx. Order Retin-A from mexican pharmacy, Second novelty is that the scope of the regulation has been enlarged (article 2.2.c) to persons and organisations involved in the licensing, training, Retin-A used for, Where can i buy cheapest Retin-A online, testing, checking and medical assessment of applicants, buy Retin-A no prescription. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, This article is new in itself but its contents are part clarification of the scope of what the directive was about (but which was not clear) and part novelty, as in the case of the medical assessment. Is Retin-A safe, Third, a new scope of this regulation over the directive is that it obliges Member States to ensure that the services provided by military personnel to the public is of a safety level equivalent to that offered by civil service providers, Retin-A class. Get Retin-A, This scope widening also opens the door to approach military ATC service provision to its civil counterpart, opening the door to civil ATC licences to military personnel, generic Retin-A. Retin-A pics, Fourth, in article 6 (a) cases of misconduct have been added as being a valid reason for the suspension of a license or endorsement(s) or rating(s)

Fifth, where can i buy Retin-A online, Retin-A australia, uk, us, usa, to become an air traffic controller, one does not need anymore to hold a university entry level of education as the new regulation defines that `any other secondary education qualification which enables the candidate to complete ATC training` would be a valid entry level, Retin-A interactions. Online buy Retin-A without a prescription, This for me is a significant improvement in this area, as, Retin-A photos, Retin-A from mexico, from a given level of education, which does not necessarily need to correlate with university entry level, Retin-A gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Purchase Retin-A online no prescription, a new population could be allowed into the profession and who could make a very good career in it.

Sixth, the second part of article 10 of the directive which said that Member States, for safety reasons could limit the maximum age of working under a specific unit endorsement has been deleted, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription.

Seventh, buy Retin-A without prescription, an article that requires English language proficiency as part of your student license before starting to exercise the privelages of such a licence has been added, even if in my opinion, the way that it has been written leaves a door open to interpretations as I will comment in the next post.

Eighth, there has been further elaboration about the validity of medical certification in article 16 and the introduction of a new article (17) about reduced medical fitness.

Ninth, the tasks of competent authorities (article 22) have been increased to take into account the new language proficiency and the reduction of medical fitness provisions.

Tenth and final comparison, the new regulation establishes mutual recognition for student licences, something that was not the case before, and which in my opinion, since the harmonisation achieved in initial training through the common core content training objectives, is something which is more evident than the mutual recognition and comparisons of two ATC licences where the licence does not describe prior experience, traffic levels and unit complexities, level and type of refresher training, etc...What should be more comparable than two school leavers who have studied against a harmonised set of objectives.

In the next post I will look at areas of improvement to the regulation..

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[caption id="" align="alignnone" width="505" caption="Image courtesy of whatcomsymphony.com"] Buy Amoxicillin Without Prescription, [/caption]

Hello dear reader of AriaTM,

In this short post I would like to thank you for following this blog.

In 2011, ordering Amoxicillin online, Taking Amoxicillin, the blog has been visited over 3240 times, against 2650 in 2010 (22% increase) and just over 500 in 2009, Amoxicillin use. Amoxicillin cost, The top 3 countries visiting are the US, Spain and the UK in that order, doses Amoxicillin work. Generic Amoxicillin, In 2011, the blog saw 11 new posts (admittedly too few) on subjects related to ATC, purchase Amoxicillin online, Buy Amoxicillin without prescription, Training, Environment, Amoxicillin gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Amoxicillin without prescription, Human Factors and Aviation Business amongst others.

Next year I would like to continue bringing insight, Amoxicillin maximum dosage, Order Amoxicillin no prescription, opinion and ATM related articles and wish to evolve into a collaborative space, where different experts submit posts, Amoxicillin reviews. Amoxicillin class, This is a wish I have had for a while but which is being hard to realise (yet). If you would like to submit posts to this blog, is Amoxicillin addictive, Amoxicillin over the counter, drop me a line via the contact area or via the fb / twitter pages and we can talk about it...
I will also give a fresher look and feel to the blog...and I aim for over 4000 visits.

In the mean time, order Amoxicillin online overnight delivery no prescription, Discount Amoxicillin, I wish to thank you for reading and wish you a happy and successful 2012, and please enjoy the next post about the 2011 EU regulation about ATC licences, where can i cheapest Amoxicillin online, Amoxicillin overnight, training and certification. Amoxicillin samples. Ordering Amoxicillin online. Amoxicillin no rx. Amoxicillin natural. Amoxicillin long term. Amoxicillin schedule. Amoxicillin without a prescription. Fast shipping Amoxicillin. Canada, mexico, india. Where can i find Amoxicillin online. Buy cheap Amoxicillin no rx. Buy Amoxicillin without a prescription. Herbal Amoxicillin. Doses Amoxicillin work. Amoxicillin results. My Amoxicillin experience. Buy cheap Amoxicillin. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Buy generic Amoxicillin. Purchase Amoxicillin.

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I have just read the following news article from the CANSO News service: http://www.canso.org/cms/showpage.aspx?id=3379

¨FABEC States are Establishing Formal Structures

Functional Airspace Block Europe Central (FABEC) has initiated the formal change from project status to operational status


Zithromax For Sale, On 19 October, the first Provisional FABEC Council meeting took place. Effects of Zithromax, With this meeting, FABEC has initiated the formal change from project status to operational status, purchase Zithromax for sale. Zithromax from canada, By building up the structures almost one and half years before the formal deadline set by the European Commission, the six FABEC States Belgium, Zithromax treatment, Where to buy Zithromax, France, Germany, Zithromax no prescription, Zithromax without prescription, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland strongly underline their commitment to improve cooperation in air navigation services to enhance safety, order Zithromax no prescription, Zithromax online cod, capacity and flight efficiency in the FABEC airspace. The FABEC Council will be the main governance body of the FABEC Cooperation as laid down in the FABEC Treaty which is under national ratification.

To safeguard the progress and to develop concrete improvements, Zithromax price, Online buying Zithromax hcl, the FABEC Council will be supported by Committees and the FABEC States Bureau. In addition, Zithromax canada, mexico, india, Buy Zithromax from canada, the FABEC Council decided to establish an Air Navigations Service Provider Consultative Board whose task is to advise the FABEC Council on air navigation services aspects. All FABEC bodies are composed of civil and military representatives and will be provisional until the FABEC Treaty has been ratified by all countries.

FABEC brings together the six States of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland, their civil and military air navigation service providers as well as EUROCONTROL's four-State air traffic control centre in Maastricht, Zithromax For Sale. The civil FABEC ANSPs employ a total of 17, buy no prescription Zithromax online, Zithromax blogs, 700 people. 5, what is Zithromax, Is Zithromax addictive, 400 are traffic controllers. 55 % of all European traffic takes place in the FABEC area. ¨

When I read this, Zithromax pharmacy, Online Zithromax without a prescription, I could not help not thinking of the similarities with the Eurocontrol (and European bureaucracy) structure:

  • Governed by a Provisional Council (Eurocontrol has exactly had a Provisional Council since the 1990ies)

  • The FABEC council will be supported by committees....so does Eurocontrol

  • FABEC will establish an Air Navigation Service Provider Consultative Board....So does Eurocontrol, It has an ANS Board

  • All FABEC bodies composed of civil and military representatives...So does Eurocontrol

  • There is a FABEC treaty which still needs to be ratified by all countires (this the name of Provisional for the council) so exactly does Eurocontrol.

  • Finally the mission / commitment: ¨ their commitment to improve cooperation in air navigation services to enhance safety, cheap Zithromax, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews, capacity and flight efficiency in the FABEC airspace¨ Is this not the same for Eurocontrol?

So my questions are: Is Eurocontrol too ´big´ that the core states need an elite group in which to push their cooperation and improvement.

Is Eurocontrol´s structure that good to imitate it that closely, Zithromax recreational. Order Zithromax from United States pharmacy, Then why that much criticism?

Finally what will the relationship between FABEC, the European Commission and other Eurocontrol states be in the future, after Zithromax, Zithromax pictures, or better, given another few FABS with a similar structure to that announced by FABEC, low dose Zithromax, Zithromax street price, what will Eurocontrol´s future be?. Zithromax wiki. Zithromax cost. Zithromax duration. No prescription Zithromax online. Zithromax mg. Zithromax description. Buy Zithromax from mexico. Zithromax dangers. Rx free Zithromax. Zithromax steet value. Zithromax use. Zithromax alternatives. Buying Zithromax online over the counter.

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Retin-A For Sale, Based on some experience observing students learning skills to become air traffic controllers, I gave the following advice in a presentation to students who were about to start their practical phases in an initial Tower course.

Basically this is what I think a student should do in sequencial order to progress well in the practical part of training:

1 Learn the procedures well (because, buy Retin-A online cod, Real brand Retin-A online,   if you don't know what you should do, 1 you won't stand a chance to do it well and 2 you will spend a lot of your mental capacity to think about what should be done), Retin-A trusted pharmacy reviews. Online buy Retin-A without a prescription, 2 Automate basic skills / practices as early as possible, such as:

  • Talking on the frequency using correct phraseology, Retin-A class, Retin-A schedule, whilst manipulating strips

  • Manipulating strips (writing information and reordering them) whilst taking action

  • Follow up actions with necessary coordination.

3 Get into the custom (as I do not want to call it habit) of Scanning the strips, then the runway, Retin-A wiki, Herbal Retin-A, then the air, to update your situational awareness and to make plans, Retin-A interactions. Retin-A used for, Take action, and recommence with the scanning, Retin-A no prescription. No prescription Retin-A online, Do this continuously.

4 Do not learn situation in boxes (meaning isolated from other situations) but more like pieces of a puzzle (meaning with those intruding and protruding bits which link with other pieces of a puzzle)

Meaning like this: and not like this:

5 In continuation with 4, continuously make links between situations, Retin-A For Sale. Continuously create your image by using pieces of the puzzle.  This is what the controllers refer to as ' I have the picture' meaning I know what is going on in my area of responsibility and I know what I need to do (what procedures to apply, Retin-A for sale, Purchase Retin-A online no prescription, which actions to take and in what order of priority).

6 Use logic and common sense, Retin-A dangers. Retin-A results, In air traffic control, procedures are applied for a reason, fast shipping Retin-A. Retin-A natural, UNDERSTAND the reason before applying something, otherwise you are just parrot applying what you have been told, Retin-A photos. Retin-A For Sale, 7 And finally DO NOT LEARN situations or exercises by heart. Retin-A alternatives, Air traffic control is a complex system where the environment (weather, type of aircraft, comprar en línea Retin-A, comprar Retin-A baratos, Retin-A recreational, technology, ...) and different people (with different reaction rates, my Retin-A experience, Retin-A from canadian pharmacy, different situational contexts, etc.) interact continuously, Retin-A over the counter. Buy cheap Retin-A, Even if many situations resemble each other, no 2 situations are exactly the same, Retin-A australia, uk, us, usa, Retin-A overnight, and it is enough for 1 parameter to change, e.g, Retin-A long term. Where can i find Retin-A online, delaying 1 aircraft, a wind change, Retin-A street price, Buy Retin-A online cod, different type of aircraft, etc, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Retin-A blogs, to have a complete different situation.
Learning situations by heart (and I know that many students fall into the temptation to learn parts of the examinations by heart based on what other students tell them - even if they have no guarantee that it is exactly the same exam that they will do) is most of the times DETREMENAL to your performance, online Retin-A without a prescription, Retin-A cost, because you stop acting by using your awareness, understanding and appreciation of a situation and start reacting mechanically to a scenario, real brand Retin-A online. Where can i buy Retin-A online, With these 7 tips, I hope that if you are a future student, Retin-A description, Buy Retin-A from canada, you will have some more help as on how to learn effectively during practical training.  If you are an instructor, maybe you can use some of these tips, or contribute by providing others.

And you, instructor, students, or controller alike, what do you think. Leave us a comment...

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